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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Elastic interaction energies between two identical inhomogeneous plates in an anisotropic matrix were calculated with respect to particle separation distance and alignment orientation on the basis of the microscopic theory of elasticity developed by Yamauchi and de Fontaine. Four types of plate-arrangement along the cube directions; two plates whose faces were mutually parallel, two plates which were arranged on a cube plane as a raft, two plates which were perpendicularly arranged with face—edge configuration and two plates which were perpendicularly aligned with edge—edge configuration were energetically stable, while other arrangements were not stable. Compared with experimental observations on the local arrangement of γ′plates in a Ni-Al single crystal, the calculated results were confirmed to be qualitatively correct.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Phase separations in iron-rich Fe-Al-Co ternary alloys were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy, differential thermal analysis and magnetization measurement. Two kinds of phase separations have been found at 923 K; A2+B2 and B2+B2*. The former occurs in a tongue-shaped composition region ranging from Fe-12 at % Al-15 at % Co to Fe-35 at % Al-45 at % Co and the latter appears in the small region bordering on the Fe-Al binary side of the A2+B2 field. These two-phase fields have theoretically been evaluated on the basis of the so-called Bragg-Williams-Gorsky model taking account of not only chemical but also magnetic interactions. The magnetic ordering accounts for the expansion of the A2+B2 coexistent region. In the measurement of magnetic properties, large increases in coercive force, H c, and residual magnetic flux density, B r, were observed in the two-phase microstructures.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The effects of aging temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a newly designed martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel, which is 1.8Cu-15.9Cr-7.3Ni-1.2Mo-low C, N steel, for improving the toughness, ductility and corrosion resistance of stainless steel of 1000 MPa grade tensile strength were experimentally investigated. The specimen aged at 753 K for 14.4 ks has a typical lath martensitic structure with about 12% interlath austenite, while the specimens aged at 813 K and 853 K for 14.4 ks have the lamellar duplex microstructure of the reverted austenite and the aging hardened martensite. The formation process of reverted austenite is controlled by diffusion of Ni in martensite. The mean size of precipitates which are enriched with Cu increases with rising aging temperature, however, it is about 30 nm even after aging at 853 K for 14.4 ks. The specimens aged at 813 K and 853 K for 14.4 ks, in which the reversion of martensite to austenite is observed, have the excellent combinations of strength, ductility and toughness.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The so-called bifurcation diagrams for γ′ precipitate particles in nickel-based alloys were obtained by calculating the energy state for a pair of particles on the basis of the bifurcation theory. Based on the bifurcation diagrams, we have proposed a new parameter for describing the two-phase structure containing coherent particles. The parameter is defined as the mean particle radius at the intersection of the energy ridge and the line ofR=−0.5 orR=0.5 in the bifurcation diagram (R≡(r α−r β)/(r α+r β), wherer α andr β are the radii of α and β), and is symbolized by¯r * ±0.5. Because the energy state of the paired α and β is maximum at¯r * ±0.5 whenR=±0.5,¯r * ±0.5 is just like the watershed and hence we have termed it “structureshed”. This parameter successfully describes the effects of elastic energy as well as surface energy on the microstructural changes during coarsening of precipitate particles.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Computer simulations of phase decomposition were performed for the Cu-Co alloy system on the basis of the non-linear diffusion equation. In the calculations, the modified regular solution approximation was adopted, i.e. the composition and temperature dependences of the interaction parameter, Ω, between the nearest neighbour atoms were taken into account and the mobility of atoms was defined as a function of solute composition. The phase decompositions were successfully computed for the Cu-Co alloys. The calculation method proposed here is applicable to many actual alloy systems.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract A computer simulation, based on the Khachaturyan diffusion equation, is presented to develop the kinetics of the morphological evolution of the A2/B2 second-order phase transition in a binary solid solution. The evolution of the occupation probability, as a function of composition, shows a good similarity to the actual micrographs experimentally obtained based on the macroscopic composition gradient method. These results are used in parallel with the results of the evolution of the long-range order parameter as a function of the ageing time, to verify a new concept of the ordering behaviour inside the ordered phase.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The phase separation in iron-rich Fe-Si-Ge ternary alloys was investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. The phase separations into A2 and D03 were recognized in several alloys in addition to the phase separation into B2 and D03 which has already been found in Fe-Si and Fe-Ge binary systems. On the basis of TEM observations, isothermal section diagrams are proposed for the iron-rich corner at 823, 873, 923 and 973 K. The A2 + D03 two-phase field exists in a band-shaped region at 823 K. With increase in temperature,the A2 + D03 field gradually shrinks and is eventually replaced at 973 Kwith the B2 + D03 field, which extends from both the Fe-Si and Fe-Ge binary sides. The phase diagrams were well reproduced by the calculations based on the so-called Bragg-Williams-Gorsky approximation, taking account of the chemical and magnetic pair interactions up to the second nearest neighbour. The effects of the magnetism on the equilibria are discussed.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The effect of retained austenite (γ) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel was experimentally investigated, whose chemical composition was Fe-1.8Cu-15.9Cr-7.3Ni-1.2Mo-0.08Nb-low C, N (mass %). The microstructures of all specimens consist of a typical lath martensite with interlath films of the retained γ, which is not reverted with aging. Cu-rich precipitates which may contribute to precipitation hardening can not clearly be observed. The tensile properties and Charpy absorbed energy are linearly approximated to the amount of retained γ as follows: 0.2% Y.S. (MPa) = 1192.3 − 13.6 × γ%, T.S. (MPa) = 1250.1 − 9.3 × γ%, El. (%) = 12.16 + 0.43 × γ%, R.A. (%) = 64.25 + 0.14 × γ%, and A.E. (J) = 72.5 + 0.8 × γ%. The introduction of retained γ is not beneficial to the fatigue limit. An excellent combinations of strength, ductility and toughness obtained in the present work is attributed to the introduction of retained γ and also to the chemical composition of the specimen used.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Chitosan ; molecular weight ; light scattering ; viscosity ; gel permeation chromatography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The viscometric constantsa andK in the Mark-Houwink equation were determined in 0.5 M acetic acid-0.5 M.sodium acetate solution for chitosan fractionated by gel filtration. The weight-average molecular weight of each fraction was measured by the light-scattering method. The values obtained area=0.59 andK=0.119 cm3 g−1. The molecular weightsMw andMn for fractionated chitosan were measured by GPC. The value ofMw by GPC was much different from that by light scattering and, therefore, a universal calibration procedure was applied to the data by GPC. It was concluded that, also in the case of a cationic polysaccharide such as chitosan, the universal calibration procedure is effective for obtaining the reliable molecular weight by GPC.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1434-6036
    Keywords: 61.44.+p ; 71.20.Cf ; 72.15.-v ; 79.60.-i
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Measurements with photoemission spectroscopy in the photon-energy range 35–130 eV have been used to determine the valence band of the stable icosahedral Al65Cu20Os15. Resonant photoemission near the Os 5p → 5d and 4f → 5d transitions has been employed to show that the feature in the valence band with the maximum intensity at 1.5 (1) eV below the Fermi level is predominantly of the Os 5d character. This has been additionally verified by conducting the photoemission measurements in the constant-initial-state mode and by using the effect of the Cooper minimum in the photoionization cross section of the Os 5d orbitals. The valence band feature with the maximum intensity at 3.7 (1) eV below the Fermi level has been shown as being due mainly to the states of the Cu 3d character. The Os 5d and Cu 3d empirical partial density of states have been determined from the photoemission spectra. The decrease of intensity towards the Fermi level has been interpreted as being indicative of the presence of a theoretically predicted pseudogap around the Fermi level. It has been indicated, however, that the Fermi cut-off also contributes to the observed intensity decrease. It has been demonstrated that the energy resolution of the spectroscopic measurements performed so far on quasicrystals was not high enough to unambiguously determine the presence of such a pseudogap. No unusual features in the valence band of icosahedral Al65Cu20Os15, which could be ascribed to its quasiperiodic nature, have been observed within the resolution of the experiment. High energy-resolution spectroscopic measurements were also shown to be essential to observe the theoretically predicted spikiness of the density of states in quasicrystals. A critical review of published spectroscopic data on the electronic structure of quasicrystals has also been presented.
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