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  • 1
    ISSN: 1438-3888
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Interest in using remote sensing techniques, principally those involving satellite, in Wadden Sea research has centred on attempting a classification of the various sediment surface types present. Unlike most recent studies which have used mainly Landsat Multispectral Scanner data, we have assessed the feasibility of using Landsat Thematic Mapper data, which in conjunction with time series aerial photography, forms the basis of a strategy for remotely sensing the Wadden Sea. This paper focusses on an approach for extracting potentially “hidden” within-pixel information from multispectral data sets. A hierarchical (unsupervised) classification of a Thematic Mapper image successfully classified five different classes, including land, saltmarsh, water, cloud and tidal flat areas. This procedure thus enabled a “masking-out” of all classes other than those classified as tidal flat, following which a factor analysis was used to determine the minimum number of independent factors necessary to explain the observed variation in the signal received by the satellite. Three factors accounted for a total of 82% of the variation in all seven TM channels. Preliminary studies of the primary factor (score) image shows a good correlation with existing latterday cartographic data. Considering the proximate relationship between topography and other important biotic and abiotic sedimentary characteristics, this approach may prove valuable for future applications of satellite data for monitoring long-term change in physical and thus biological Wadden Sea characteristics. Ongoing research efforts are focussing on a classification and quantification of sub-pixel patchiness using aerial photography and ground surveys. The approaches taken and results obtained to date are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Boundary layer meteorology 18 (1980), S. 221-232 
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A version of the two-flow radiative transfer model is presented as a simple method to study the relationship between substances in water and the backscattered radiation field. It is shown that under the assumption of a diffuse radiative input into a water body, the irradiance attenuation coefficient k can be regarded as an inherent property. A cuvette system is presented which allows one to measure and calculate the attenuation coefficient k, the absorption coefficient a and the backscattering coefficient Bb of various substances. The model can be used to check the applicability of a remote sensing technique for a specific research area and for specific parameters, and to estimate the expected accuracy, and the signal depth. The inversion of the model can be applied as a technique to estimate concentrations in water from the backscattered radiation. The critical assumption of a diffuse radiative input and transfer, which has to be made when using the model for natural conditions, is discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    GeoJournal 24 (1991), S. 27-48 
    ISSN: 1572-9893
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: Abstract Remote sensing of water colour and its application to the mapping of pigments, suspended matter and other substances by means of airborne and spaceborne sensors is discussed. After an introduction to the physical process involved, the methods for a quantitative interpretation especially of CZCS data are indicated. Applications towards the monitoring of coastal pollution, of algae blooms and of dynamic processes are shown by means of selected examples. Multispectral scanner and imaging spectrometer technologies are discussed with special reference to NASA's Earth Observation System and ESA's Earth Observation Programme.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-05-10
    Description: The Coastal Observing System for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA) was established in order to better understand the complex interdisciplinary processes of northern seas and the Arctic coasts in a changing environment. Particular focus is given to the German Bight in the North Sea as a prime example of a heavily used coastal area, and Svalbard as an example of an Arctic coast that is under strong pressure due to global change.The COSYNA automated observing and modelling system is designed to monitor real-time conditions and provide short-term forecasts, data, and data products to help assess the impact of anthropogenically induced change. Observations are carried out by combining satellite and radar remote sensing with various in situ platforms. Novel sensors, instruments, and algorithms are developed to further improve the understanding of the interdisciplinary interactions between physics, biogeochemistry, and the ecology of coastal seas. New modelling and data assimilation techniques are used to integrate observations and models in a quasi-operational system providing descriptions and forecasts of key hydrographic variables. Data and data products are publicly available free of charge and in real time. They are used by multiple interest groups in science, agencies, politics, industry, and the public.
    Print ISSN: 1812-0784
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-0792
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 5
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    Springer
    In:  In: Remote Sensing of the Asian Seas. , ed. by Barale, V. and Gade, M. Springer, Cham, pp. 123-138. ISBN 978-3-319-94065-6
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The Laptev and Eastern Siberian shelves are the world’s broadest shallow shelf systems. Large Siberian rivers and coastal erosion of up to meters per summer deliver large volumes of terrestrial matter into the Arctic shelf seas. In this chapter we investigate the applicability of Ocean Colour Remote Sensing during the ice-free summer season in the Siberian Laptev Sea region. We show that the early summer river peak discharge may be traced using remote sensing in years characterized by early sea-ice retreat. In the summer time after the peak discharge, the spreading of the main Lena River plume east and north-east of the Lena River Delta into the shelf system becomes hardly traceable using optical remote sensing methods. Measurements of suspended particulate matter (SPM) and coloured dissolved organic matter (cDOM) are of the same magnitude in the coastal waters of Buor Khaya Bay as in the Lena River. Match-up analyses of in situ chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) show that standard Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite-derived Chl-a is not a valid remote sensing product for the coastal waters and the inner shelf region of the Laptev Sea. All MERIS and MODIS-derived Chl-a products are overestimated by at least a factor of ten, probably due to absorption by the extraordinarily high amount of non-algal particles and cDOM in these coastal and inner-shelf waters. Instead, Ocean Colour remote sensing provides information on wide-spread resuspension over shallows and lateral advection visible in satellite-derived turbidity. Satellite Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data clearly show hydrodynamics and delineate the outflow of the Lena River for hundreds of kilometres out into the shelf seas.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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