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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    GeoJournal 22 (1990), S. 391-398 
    ISSN: 1572-9893
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography
    Notes: Abstract The classical methods for interpolating and spatial averaging of precipitation fields fail to quantify the accuracy of the estimate. On the other hand, kriging is an interpolation method for predicting values of regionalized variables at points (punctual kriging) or average values over an area (block kriging). This paper demonstrates the use of the kriging method for mapping and evaluating precipitation data for the State of Arizona. Using 158 rain gauge stations with 30 years or more of record, the precipitation over the state has been modeled as a realization of a two dimensional random field taking into consideration the spatial variability conditions. Three data sets have been used: (1) the mean annual precipitation over the state; (2) the mean summer rainy season; and (3) the mean winter rainy season. Validation of the empirical semi-variogram for a constant drift case indicated that the exponential model was appropriate for all the data sets. In addition to a global kriging analysis, the data have been examined under an anisotropic assumption which reflects the topographic structure of the state.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-174X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Nature of Science, Research, Systems of Higher Education, Museum Science
    Notes: Abstract Israeli society is characterized by multilevel conflict in various domains of life. In an introductory course in Educational Anthropology offered in the School of Education at the University of Haifa, students were exposed to basic theoretical tenets of the field. The importance of openness and tolerance in inter-ethnic relations - stemming from cultural pluralism, cultural relativism and mediated via cross-cultural sensitization - was emphasized. The educational implications of these approaches were examined in terms of curriculum, classroom organization, teacher training, etc. Due to the fact that the course offered models of culture fair inter-group relations, one of the skills it was meant to develop was an ability to better deal with conflict. To assess the extent of skill development accomplished, students were assigned to draw up scenarios of conflict situations in an educational context based on cultural differences among the participants, analyze them and bring suggestions for their solution or prevention. The content analysis of the scenarios revealed differences in conflict resolution styles between Jewish and Arab students. The paper discusses the meaning, significance and implications of the two student groups' respective attitudes to this sensitive issue.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: To determine the environmental impact of oil-combustion pollutants and soil dust on a lichen, we examined the spectral reflectance of thalli of the epiphytic fruticose lichen, Ramalina duriaei, expressed as values of NDVI (the normalized difference vegetation index). We analyzed electrolyte leakage caused by degradation of cell membranes in terms of electric conductivity of water, apart from chlorophyll degradation, the latter expressed as changes in the A435 nm/A415 nm ratio to indicate the physiological status of the lichen. The concentrations of Al, Cr, Fe, K, Ni, P, sulfate-S, Ti and V in the lichen thallus were measured to quantify the degree of pollution. Thalli of R. duriaei, growing in a nature reserve on the periphery of a 40-year-old industrial town, Ashdod, in southwest Israel were compared with thalli of R. duriaei from an unpolluted forest in the northeastern part of the country transplanted to the polluted areas in and around the town. After an exposure for 10 months, many transplants exhibited lower NDVI values, higher electric conductivity values as well as a lower A435 nm/A415 nm ratio. The three physical/physiological parameters thus reflected severe injury in the lichen transplants. The concentrations of Al, Cr, Fe, Ni, sulfate-S, Ti and V in the lichen transplants were found to correlate inversely with the NDVI values, whereas the concentrations of Fe, Ni, Ti and V were found to correlate with electric conductivity. The decrease in the A435 nm/A415 nm ratio was found to correlate with high concentrations of Al, Fe, Ni, sulfate-S, Ti and V in the lichen transplants, whereas the concentration of K and P correlated with both the NDVI value and the A435 nm/A415 nm ratio. It is concluded that in situ thalli of R. duriaei, the only indigenous fruticose lichen growing in the region of Ashdod, are endangered by the presence of pollutants and by acid rain due to the combustion of heavy fuel oil.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-07-18
    Print ISSN: 0921-030X
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-0840
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Springer
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