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  • Springer  (3,351)
  • American Geophysical Union (AGU)  (1,656)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-1634
    Keywords: Polymer flooding ; viscous fingering ; multiphase flow ; dispersion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Technology
    Notes: Abstract The concept of improving oil recovery through polymer flooding is analysed. It is shown that while the injection of a polymer solution improves reservoir conformance, this beneficial effect ceases as soon as one attempts to push the polymer solution with water. Once water injection begins, the water quickly passes through the polymer creating a path along which all future injected water flows. Thus, the volume of the polymer slug is important to the process and an efficient recovery would require that the vast majority of the reservoir be flooded by polymer. It is also shown that the concept of grading a polymer slug to match the mobilities of the fluids at the leading and trailing edges of a polymer slug does not work in a petroleum reservoir. While this process can supply some additional stability to the slug, it is shown that for the purposes of enhanced oil recovery this additional stability is not great enough to be of any practical use. It is found that in this case the instability has simply been hidden in the interior of the slug and causes the same sort of instability to occur as was the case for the uniform slug.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0975
    Keywords: Key words Scale ; Coral reefs ; Landscape ecology ; Florida Keys ; Caribbean ; Hierarchical analysis.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  Coral reef communities of the western Atlantic have changed over the past two to three decades, but the magnitude and causes of this change remain controversial. Part of the problem is that small-scale patterns observed on individual reefs have been erroneously extrapolated to landscape and geographic scales. Understanding how reef coral assemblages vary through space is an essential prerequisite to devising sampling strategies to track the dynamics of coral reefs through time. In this paper we quantify variation in the cover of hard corals in spur-and-groove habitats (13–19 m depth) at spatial scales spanning five orders of magnitude along the Florida Reef Tract. A videographic sampling program was conducted to estimate variances in coral cover at the following hierarchical levels and corresponding spatial scales: (1) among transects within sites (0.01- to 0.1-km scale), (2) among sites within reefs (0.5- to 2-km scale), (3) among reefs within sectors of the reef tract (10- to 20-km scale), and (4) among sectors of the reef tract (50- to 100-km scale). Coral cover displayed low variability among transects within sites and among sites within reefs. This means that transects from a site adequately represented the variability of the spur-and-groove habitat of the reef as a whole. Variability among reefs within sectors was highly significant, compared with marginally significant variability among sectors. Estimates from an individual reef, therefore, did not adequately characterize nearby reefs, nor did those estimates sufficiently represent variability at the scale of the sector. The structure and composition of coral reef communities is probably determined by the interaction of multiple forcing functions operating on a variety of scales. Hierarchical analyses of coral assemblages from other geographic locations have detected high variability at scales different from those in the present study. A multiscale analysis should, therefore, precede any management decisions regarding large reef systems such as the Florida Reef Tract.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1017
    Keywords: Myoglobin ; nuclear Overhauser effect ; exchangeable protons ; histidines
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Proton-proton Overhauser effects were observed in 1H2O solutions of sperm whale metcyano myoglobin. Dipolar connectivities involving hyperfine-shifted exchangeable protons such as the proximal and distal histidine ring NH's allowed us to categorize signals as arising from residues located on one side of the heme plane or on the other. With these connectivities, as well as spin-lattice relaxation times, spectral assignments were reached that were used to derive structural and dynamic information about the heme environment. Thus, it was shown that the distal histidine residue does not titrate down to pH ∼4.1 and that the βCH2 of the proximal histidine side chain tumbles with the same correlation time as the protein. Some other applications and limitations are presented.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract All strains of Comamonas testosteroni investigated here, produced quinohaemoprotein ethanol dehydrogenase (QH-EDH) when grown on ethanol or butanol, but one strain of C. acidovorans and of C. terrigena did not. Hybridization experiments showed that the gene for QH-EDH is absent in the latter two strains. Induction and properties of the QH-EDHs seem to be similar: all C. testosteroni strains produced the enzyme in its apo-form [without pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)] and the levels were higher at growth at low temperature; preference for the R–enantiomer and similar selectivity was shown in the oxidation of solketal (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4-methanol) by cells (supplemented with PQQ); the fragment of the qhedh gene gave high hybridization with the DNA of the C. testosteroni strains. Experiments with C. testosteroni LMD 26.36 revealed that the organism is well suited for production of (S)-solketal: it shows an adequate enantioselectivity (E value of 49) for the oxidation of racemic solketal; the conversion rate of (R)-solketal is only 3.5 times lower than that of ethanol; the optimal pH for conversion (7.6) is in a region where solketal has sufficient chemical stability; separation of the remaining (S)-solketal from the acid formed is simple; induction of QH-EDH, the sole enzyme responsible for the oxidation of (R)-solketal, occurs during growth on ethanol or butanol so that the presence of solketal (inhibitory for growth) is not required; production of active cells and the conversion step can be integrated into one process, provided that PQQ and solketal addition occur at the appropriate moment; the conversion seems environmentally feasible. However, since high concentrations of solketal inhibit respiration via QH-EDH, further investigations on the mechanism of inhibition and the stability of the enzyme might be rewarding as it could lead to application of higher substrate concentrations with consequently lower downstream processing costs.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract All strains of Comamonas testosteroni investigated here, produced quinohaemoprotein ethanol dehydrogenase (QH-EDH) when grown on ethanol or butanol, but one strain of C. acidovorans and of C. terrigena did not. Hybridization experiments showed that the gene for QH-EDH is absent in the latter two strains. Induction and properties of the QH-EDHs seem to be similar: all C. testosteroni strains produced the enzyme in its apo-form [without pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)] and the levels were higher at growth at low temperature; preference for the R-enentiomer and similar selectivity was shown in the oxidation of solketal (2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4-methanol) by cells (supplemented with PQQ); the fragment of the qhedh gene gave high hybridization with the DNA of the C. testosteroni strains. Experiments with C. testosteroni LMD 26.36 revealed that the organism is well suited for production of (S)-solketal: it shows an adequate enantioselectivity (E value of 49) for the oxidation of racemic solketal; the conversion rate of (R)-solketal is only 3.5 times lower than that of ethanol; the optimal pH for conversion (7.6) is in a region where solketal has sufficient chemical stability; separation of the remaining (S)-solketal from the acid formed is simple; induction of QH-EDH, the sole enzyme responsible for the oxidation of (R)-solketal, occurs during growth on ethanol or butanol so that the presence of solketal (inhibitory for growth) is not required; production of active cells and the conversion step can be integrated into one process, provided that PQQ and solketal addition occur at the appropriate moment; the conversion seems environmentally feasible. However, since high concentrations of solketal inhibit respiration via QH-EDH, further investigations on the mechanism of inhibition and the stability of the enzyme might be rewarding as it could lead to application of higher substrate concentrations with consequently lower down-stream processing costs.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: 42.68.Ay ; 42.68.Ge ; 33.20.Lg ; 92.60.Sz
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The first measurements of toluene by differential-absorption LIDAR in the near-ultraviolet spectral region are reported. A pulse energy of 4.5 mJ was used for the measurement, generated by frequency-doubling the output from a tunable dye laser in beta-barium borate. The magnitude of spectral interference from other pollutant species has been calculated and the extension of the system to measure other aromatic hydrocarbons in the same spectral region is discussed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0800
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1434-6052
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract A search for minimal standard model (MSM) and minimal supersymmetric model (MSSM), Higgs bosons with masses larger than 3 GeV/c2 has been performed by the OPAL collaboration one + e − data from LEP corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.24 pb−1. The limits for MSM Higgs bosons have been obtained using the channelsZ 0→Z 0* H 0,Z 0*→(v $$\bar v$$ ore + e − or µ+, µ−. The search for MSSM Higgs bosons has been performed using the channelsZ 0→Z 0* H 0,v $$\bar v$$ ore + e − or µ+µ−),h 0 →q $$\bar q$$ andZ 0→h 0 A 0,h 0 A 0→(4 jet orτ + τ −→ or 4τ), whereh 0 andA 0 are the two lightest neutral MSSM Higgs bosons. No Higgs boson signal has been observed. The MSM Higgs boson is excluded in the mass range 3 GeV 〈 $$m_{H^0 }$$ 〈25.3 GeV/c2 at the 95% confidence level; limits on the masses of the two lightest neutral MSSM Higgs bosons are obtained forh 0 mases up to 40.5 GeV/c2.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1434-6052
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We present measurements of global event shape distributions in the hadronic decays of theZ 0. The data sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of about 1.3 pb−1, was collected with the OPAL detector at LEP. Most of the experimental distributions we present are unfolded for the finite acceptance and resolution of the OPAL detector. Through comparison with our unfolded data, we tune the parameter values of several Monte Carlo computer programs which simulate perturbative QCD and the hadronization of partons. Jetset version 7.2, Herwig version 3.4 and Ariadne version 3.1 all provide good descriptions of the experimental distributions. They in addition describe lower energy data with the parameter values adjusted at theZ 0 energy. A complete second order matrix element Monte Carlo program with a modified perturbation scale is also compared to our 91 GeV data and its parameter values are adjusted. We obtained an unfolded value for the mean charged multiplicity of 21.28±0.04±0.84, where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Résumé Des chats porteurs d'électrodes corticales Ag-AgCl non polarisables et de lentilles de contact translucides, ont été entraînés, dans obscurité, à presser un levier pour obtenir 0,8 ml de lait. Ils montrent des périodes d'activité lente de haut voltage, c'est-à-dire un phénomène ECoG connu comme synchronisation de post-reinforcement sur le cortex pariéto-occipital. Quand cette synchronisation associée à la variation positive de contingent est supprimée dans l'obscurité, ces phénomènes dépendent de l'influx de la lumière diffuse et non de la perception visuelle.
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