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  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (2)
  • Springer  (2)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-07-03
    Description: Impact mitigation is a primary mechanism on which countries rely to reduce environmental externalities and balance development with conservation. Mitigation policies are transitioning from traditional project-by-project planning to landscape-level planning. Although this larger-scale approach is expected to provide greater conservation benefits at the lowest cost, empirical justification is still scarce. Using commercial sugarcane expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado as a case study, we apply economic and biophysical steady-state models to quantify the benefits of the Brazilian Forest Code (FC) under landscape- and property-level planning. We find that FC compliance imposes small costs to business but can generate significant long-term benefits to nature: supporting 32 (±37) additional species (largely habitat specialists), storing 593,000 to 2,280,000 additional tons of carbon worth $69 million to $265 million ($ pertains to U.S. dollars), and marginally improving surface water quality. Relative to property-level compliance, we find that landscape-level compliance reduces total business costs by $19 million to $35 million per 6-year sugarcane growing cycle while often supporting more species and storing more carbon. Our results demonstrate that landscape-level mitigation provides cost-effective conservation and can be used to promote sustainable development.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 〈p〉The Cerrado biome in Brazil is a tropical savanna and an important global biodiversity hot spot. Today, only a fraction of its original area remains undisturbed, and this habitat is at risk of conversion to agriculture, especially to soybeans. Here, we present the first quantitative analysis of expanding the Soy Moratorium (SoyM) from the Brazilian Amazon to the Cerrado biome. The SoyM expansion to the Cerrado would prevent the direct conversion of 3.6 million ha of native vegetation to soybeans by 2050. Nationally, this would require a reduction in soybean area of approximately 2%. Relative risk of future native vegetation conversion for soybeans would be driven by the Brazilian domestic market, China, and the European Union. We conclude that, to preserve the Cerrado’s biodiversity and ecosystem services, urgent action is required, including a zero native vegetation conversion agreement such as the SoyM.〈/p〉
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: PACS: 75.50.Cc; 78.20.Ls; 79.60.Cn
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract.  4 f Photoemission (PE) spectra from magnetically ordered rare-earth materials using circularly polarized X-rays exhibit strong Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD), i.e., the intensities of the individual multiplet lines depend on the relative orientation of sample magnetization and photon spin. On the example of the well- resolved Tb 4 f PE multiplet, it is shown that in relevant cases 4 f PE lines are esse ntially only observed for one magnetization direction, either parallel or antiparallel to the photon spin. These large MCD effects in 4 f PE open new perspectives in the analysis of surface and thin-film magnetism and provide a sensor for the degree of circular polarization of soft X-rays over a wide photon-energy range. To demonstrate the potential of MCD in 4 f PE as a magnetometer, we studied Gd(0001) and Tb(0001), where the magnetization of the topmost atomic (0001) layer can be easily separated from the bulk magnetization via the surface core-level shift. In multicomponent magnetic thin films containing different rare-earth elements, 4 f PE allows to monitor magnetization in an element-specific way, e.g., in case of the hetero-magnetic interface 1ML Eu/Gd(0001).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 75.50.Cc ; 78.20.Ls ; 79.60.Cn
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract 4f Photoemission (PE) spectra from magnetically ordered rare-earth materials using circularly polarized X-rays exhibit strong Magnetic Circular Dichroism (MCD), i.e., the intensities of the individual multiplet lines depend on the relative orientation of sample magnetization and photon spin. On the example of the wellresolved Tb 4f PE multiplet, it is shown that in relevant cases 4f PE lines are essentially only observed for one magnetization direction, either parallel or antiparallel to the photon spin. These large MCD effects in 4f PE open new perspectives in the analysis of surface and thin-film magnetism and provide a sensor for the degree of circular polarization of soft X-rays over a wide photon-energy range. To demonstrate the potential of MCD in 4f PE as a magnetometer, we studied Gd(0001) and Tb(0001), where the magnetization of the topmost atomic (0001) layer can be easily separated from the bulk magnetization via the surface core-level shift. In multicomponent magnetic thin films containing different rare-earth elements 4f PE allows to monitor magnetization in an element-specilic way, e.g., in case of the hetero-magnetic interface 1 ML En/Gd(0001).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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