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  • Springer  (15)
  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (7)
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (5)
  • Amsterdam : Elsevier
  • 2000-2004  (28)
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Language
Year
  • 1
    Call number: ILP/M 06.0353
    In: Publication of the International Lithosphere Programme
    In: Tectonophysics
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: vi, 271 S. : Ill., graph. Darst.
    Series Statement: [Publication of the International Lithosphere Programme] 381,1-4 : special issue
    Language: English
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-2959
    Keywords: PM10 ; urban air quality ; background ; NAME ; ADMS ; long range transport ; air pollution ; particulates ; nitrogen dioxide ; sulphur dioxide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Norwich is the eastern most city in the United Kingdom. Despite a population of only 100,000 and very little local industry, studies have shown that the city experiences levels of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, particulates and sulphur dioxide exceeding the UK Air Quality Standards. Because of Norwich's situation within a large, predominantly rural area a large non-resident workforce is one factor that contributes to large, often very congested traffic flows. The city's location close to the European mainland also exposes it to polluted airmasses transported from the continent, especially in the case of particulates and ozone. In order to assess the relative contributions of local and regional sources, data from rural and urban monitoring sites are to be used in conjunction with ADMS-Urban and the UK Meteorological Office's NAME model.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Structural properties such as flexural moduli and strength have been measured for a range of porous alumina specimens of different initial powder sizes and final porosities, sintered using the capsule-free hot isostatic pressing method. This processing method produces a porous body in which the closed porosity is negligible. The relationship of these structural properties to total porosity has been investigated. The results indicate that both a power and an exponential function could adequately describe the porosity dependence of flexural strength. The strength values obtained were test method dependent, and were significantly lower for specimens with sintering aids. A power law model based on a critical porosity, as proposed by Phani, gave the best fit for the modulus measurement data. No dependence of mechanical properties on particle size was observed. The strength measurement results did not appear to support suggestions that better strength could be obtained by the capsule-free hot isostatic pressing method than conventional sintering, as reported elsewhere.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1476-5535
    Keywords: Keywords: vitamins; activated sludge; industrial wastewater; porous pots; Amtox™
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The process performance and metabolic rates of samples of activated sludge dosed with vitamin supplements have been compared. After initial screening, four vitamins and two metals as single supplements and in pairs, were dosed continuously into the mixed liquor of an activated sludge simulation. Toxicity, oxygen demand removal, respiration rates and suspended solids were measured to monitor the effect on process efficiency. It was confirmed experimentally that an industrial wastewater stream did not contain a sufficient supply of micronutrients for efficient biological treatment. This was concluded from the observation that control sludge batches (receiving no supplements) averaged chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 58%. Dosing micronutrients into the mixed liquor produced removal efficiencies of up to 69%. Some of the supplements increased the respiration rate of the sludge while some decreased it, indicating a range of stimulatory and inhibitory effects. Complex interactions between micronutrients that were dosed simultaneously were evident. Several positive effects led to the conclusion that micronutrients have the potential to optimise process performance of activated sludge plants treating industrial wastewater. The addition of phosphorus/niacin and molybdenum/lactoflavin removed wastewater components that were toxic to nitrifiers as indicated through toxicity testing, thus protecting downstream nitrification/denitrification treatment processes. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology (2000) 24, 267–274.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-9761
    Keywords: gap model ; gradient analysis ; landscape pattern ; sensitivity analysis ; Sierra Nevada ; spatial scale ; water balance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Vegetation pattern on landscapes is the manifestation of physical gradients, biotic response to these gradients, and disturbances. Here we focus on the physical template as it governs the distribution of mixed-conifer forests in California's Sierra Nevada. We extended a forest simulation model to examine montane environmental gradients, emphasizing factors affecting the water balance in these summer-dry landscapes. The model simulates the soil moisture regime in terms of the interaction of water supply and demand: supply depends on precipitation and water storage, while evapotranspirational demand varies with solar radiation and temperature. The forest cover itself can affect the water balance via canopy interception and evapotranspiration. We simulated Sierran forests as slope facets, defined as gridded stands of homogeneous topographic exposure, and verified simulated gradient response against sample quadrats distributed across Sequoia National Park. We then performed a modified sensitivity analysis of abiotic factors governing the physical gradient. Importantly, the model's sensitivity to temperature, precipitation, and soil depth varies considerably over the physical template, particularly relative to elevation. The physical drivers of the water balance have characteristic spatial scales that differ by orders of magnitude. Across large spatial extents, temperature and precipitation as defined by elevation primarily govern the location of the mixed conifer zone. If the analysis is constrained to elevations within the mixed-conifer zone, local topography comes into play as it influences drainage. Soil depth varies considerably at all measured scales, and is especially dominant at fine (within-stand) scales. Physical site variables can influence soil moisture deficit either by affecting water supply or water demand; these effects have qualitatively different implications for forest response. These results have clear implications about purely inferential approaches to gradient analysis, and bear strongly on our ability to use correlative approaches in assessing the potential responses of montane forests to anthropogenic climatic change.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-2657
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Mechanisms of fatigue were studied in single muscle fibres of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in which force, intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i), [Mg2+]i, glycogen and the rapidly releasable Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) were measured. Fatigue was produced by repeated tetani continued until force had fallen to 50%. Two patterns of fatigue in the absence of glucose were studied. In the first fatigue run force fell to 50% in 8–10 min. Fatigue runs were then repeated until force fell to 50% in 〈3 min in the final fatigue run. Addition of extracellular glucose after the final fatigue run prolonged a subsequent fatigue run. In the first fatigue run peak tetanic [Ca2+]i initially increased and then declined and at the time when force had fallen to 50% tetanic [Ca2+]i was 54 ± 5% of initial value. In the final fatigue run force and peak tetanic [Ca2+]i declined more rapidly but to the same level as in first fatigue runs. At the end of the first fatigue run, the rapidly releasable SR Ca2+ store fell to 46 ± 6% of the pre-fatigue value. At the end of the final fatigue run the rapidly releasable SR Ca2+ store was 109 ± 16% of the pre-fatigue value. In unstimulated fibres the nonwashable glycogen content was 176 ± 30 mmol glycosyl units/l fibre. After one fatigue run the glycogen content was 117 ± 17 mmol glycosyl units/l fibre; at the end of the final fatigue run the glycogen content was reduced to 85 ± 9 mmol glycosyl units/l fibre. [Mg2+]i did not change significantly at the end of fatigue in either the first or the final fatigue run suggesting that globally-averaged ATP does not decline substantially in either pattern of fatigue. These results suggest that different mechanisms are involved in the decline of tetanic [Ca2+]i in first compared to final fatigue runs. The SR Ca2+ store is reduced in first fatigue runs; this is not the case for the final fatigue run which is associated with a decline in glycogen and possibly related to either a non-metabolic effect of glycogen or a spatially-localised metabolic decline.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2657
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract There is increasing evidence that endogenous glycogen depletion may affect excitation–contraction (E–C) coupling events in vertebrate skeletal muscle. One approach employed in physiological investigations of E–C coupling involves the use of mechanically skinned, single fibre preparations obtained from tissues stored under paraffin oil, at room temperature (RT: 20–24°C) and 4°C for several hours. In the present study, we examined the effect of these storage conditions on the glycogen content in three muscles frequently used in research on E–C coupling: rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) and toad iliofibularis (IF). Glycogen content was determined fluorometrically in homogenates prepared from whole muscles, stored under paraffin oil for up to 6 h at RT or 4°C. Control muscles and muscles stored for 0.5 and 6 h were also analysed for total phosphorylase (Phostotal) and phosphorylase a (Phos a) activities. No significant change was observed in the glycogen content of EDL and SOL muscles stored at RT for 0.5 h. In rat muscles stored at RT for longer than 0.5 h, the glycogen content decreased to 67.6% (EDL) and 78.7% (SOL) of controls after 3 h and 25.3% (EDL) and 37.4% (SOL) after 6 h. Rat muscles stored at 4°C retained 79.0% (EDL) and 92.5% (SOL) of glycogen after 3 h and 75.2% (EDL) and 61.1% (SOL) after 6 h. The glycogen content of IF muscles stored at RT or 4°C for 6 h was not significantly different from controls. Phostotal was unchanged in all muscles over the 6 h period, at both temperatures. Phos a was also unchanged in the toad IF muscles, but in rat muscles it decreased rapidly, particularly in EDL (4.1-fold after 0.5 h at RT). Taken together these results indicate that storage under paraffin oil for up to 6 h at RT or 4°C is accompanied by minimal glycogen loss in toad IF muscles and by a time- and temperature-dependent glycogen loss in EDL and SOL muscles of the rat.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We present in situ surface x-ray scattering measurements of PbTiO3 epitaxy by metal–organic chemical-vapor deposition. Oscillations in crystal truncation rod intensity corresponding to layer-by-layer growth are observed under a variety of growth conditions. At lower PbO overpressures, we observe a transition to step-flow growth and an increased rate of recovery after growth, indicating a higher surface mobility. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A technique for selective characterization of the structure of free and buried thin-film interfaces by vibrationally resonant sum frequency generation spectroscopy is described. Manipulation of Fresnel coefficients by choice of film thickness on a reflecting substrate allows simultaneous optimization of the signal from the desired interface and minimization of the signal from other interfacial sources. This technique is demonstrated for the free polystyrene (PS)/air and the buried PS/spin-on glass interfaces. Our spectra show that the pendant phenyl group orientation is similar at the buried and free interfaces, with the phenyls pointing away from the bulk PS at each interface.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1435-232X
    Keywords: Key words Hyperlipoproteinemia ; Lipoproteins ; LDL receptor ; Familial combined hyperlipidemia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Factors predisposing to the phenotypic features of familial combined hyperlipidemia have not been clearly defined. In the course of investigating familial coronary artery disease in Utah, we identified a three-generation family in which multiple members were affected with type IIa hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP IIa), type IIb hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP IIb), or type IV hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP IV). Because several family members had relatively severe low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol elevation, in order to dissect the possible contribution to the plasma lipoprotein abnormalities in this pedigree, we identified a novel point mutation in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene, a G-to-A transition at nucleotide position 337 in exon 4. This change substituted lysine for glutamic acid at codon 92 (D92K) of the LDL receptor. By means of mutant allele-specific amplification we determined that the mutation co-segregated with elevated cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in the plasma of family members with HLP IIa and HLP IIb, but not with the elevated plasma triglycerides seen in HLP IIb and HLP IV patients. Thus, in families with apparent familial combined hyperlipidemia, a defective LDLR allele and other genetic or environmental factors that elevate plasma triglycerides may account for the multiple lipid phenotypes observed in this kindred.
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