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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0495
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Sedimentation rates were determined by210Pb in three sediment cores from the main basin of Lake Constance. Rates vary from 0.094 to 0.133 g cm−2y−1, in agreement with previous determinations. A constant radionuclide flux (CR) model reveals long-term, quasi-synchronous fluctuations of sedimentation rate on the basin-wide scale. On average, the rate of sedimentation remains much the same from the beginning of this century indicating little effect of human activity in the watershed on fine-silt sediment supply. The anthropogenic fluxes of Zn, Pb, and Cd in the three cores are compared and the application of210Pb as a heavy metal tracer in Lake Constance is examined. It seems to be a very good tracer for Pb, moderately good for Zn and Cu, and not useful for Cd.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract The mineralogy and composition of sediments and manganese micronodules from the northern and central sectors of the Peru Basin are discussed. Because of the proximity of the basin to the Carbonate Compensation Depth (C.C.D.), surface sediments vary between calcareous oozes and siliceous muds. Besides biogenic components clay minerals are important. By far the most abundant clay mineral is smectite which is thought to be of diagenetic origin. On a carbonate-free basis, the surface sediments are rather uniform in composition throughout the basin and are similar in composition to those of the equatorial Pacific. Sedimentation rates for the uppermost core sections are in the range of 3 to 5 mm/ 1000 yr. Micronodule compositions show significant variations related to the size class of the micronodules and the depth of occurrence within the sediment column. In general, the chemistry of the micronodules can be explained by the reductive mobilization of Mn within the sediment column and by oxic diagenetic reactions between ferromanganese hydroxides and biogenic opal. The dominant mineral phase is todorokite.
    Abstract: Résumé Cette note décrit la minéralogie et la composition des sédiments et des nodules polymétalliques de la partie septentrionale et centrale du bassin de Perou. Les sédiments de surface consistent en dépôts calcaires ou siliceux selon leur situation par rapport à la profondeur de compensation des carbonates (C. C. D.). A côté des composants biogènes, des minéraux argileux (smectites, illites) sont présents en quantité importante. Le minéral argileux le plus fréquent est une smectite diagenétique. La composition chimique de la fraction non carbonatée des sédiments est uniforme, comparable au chimisme de ceux du Pacifique central. Dans les couches les plus élevées, la vitesse de sédimentation, basée sur des datations par230Th, est de 3 à 5 mm/1000 ans. Le chimisme des micronodules polymétalliques est très variable et dépend de leur profondeur dans le sédiment et de leur dimension. Le chimisme est déterminé par des processus de remobilisation en conditions réductrices dans la colonne sêdimentaire, ainsi que par des réactions diagénétiques entre les hydroxydes de Fe-Mn et l'opale biogène. Le minéral dominant est la todorokite.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Mineralogie und chemische Zusammensetzung von Sedimenten und Manganmikroknollen aus dem nördlichen und zentralen Teil des Peru-Beckens werden beschrieben. Die Oberflächensedimente bestehen je nach der Lage zur Karbonatkompensationstiefe (C.C.D.) aus karbonatischen bzw. kieseligen Ablagerungen. Neben den biogenen Komponenten sind Tonmineralien (Smektit, Illit) von Bedeutung. Das häufigste Tonmineral ist diagenetisch gebildeter Smektit. Auf karbonatfreier Basis ist die chemische Zusammensetzung der Sedimente sehr einheitlich, vergleichbar mit dem Chemismus zentralpazifischer Sedimente.230Th-Datierungen ergeben eine Sedimentationsrate von 3–5 mm/1000 a für die obersten Sedimentschichten. In Abhängigkeit von der Korngrößenklasse und der Tiefe in der Sedimentsäule zeigen die Manganmikroknollen große Schwankungen im Chemismus. Remobilisationsprozesse unter reduzierenden Bedingungen in der Sedimentsäule sowie die diagenetischen Reaktionen zwischen Fe-Mn-Hydroxiden und biogenem Opal bestimmen die chemische Zusammensetzung der Manganmikroknollen. Die vorherrschende Mineralphase ist Todorokit.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1984-10-01
    Print ISSN: 0016-7835
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-1149
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Springer
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