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  • Springer  (2)
  • 1995-1999
  • 1990-1994  (2)
  • 1994  (2)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: atmospheric deposition ; δ15N ; δ34S ; forest decline ; nitrogen ; Picea abies ; stable isotopes ; sulfur
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Concentrations and natural isotope abundance of total sulfur and nitrogen as well as sulfate and nitrate concentrations were measured in needles of different age classes and in soil samples of different horizons from a healthy and a declining Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forest in the Fichtelgebirge (NE Bavaria, Germany), in order to study the fate of atmospheric depositions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. The mean δ15N of the needles ranged between −3.7 and −2.1 ‰ and for δ34S a range between −0.4 and +0.9 ‰ was observed. δ34S and sulfur concentrations in the needles of both stands increased continuously with needle age and thus, were closely correlated. The δ15N values of the needles showed an initial decrease followed by an increase with needle age. The healthy stand showed more negative δ15N values in old needles than the declining stand. Nitrogen concentrations decreased with needle age. For soil samples at both sites the mean δ15N and δ34S values increased from −3 ‰ (δ15N) or +0.9 ‰ (δ34S) in the uppermost organic layer to about +4 ‰ (δ15N) or +4.5 ‰ (δ34S) in the mineral soil. This depth-dependent increase in abundance of 15N and 34S was accompanied by a decrease in total nitrogen and sulfur concentrations in the soil. δ15N values and nitrogen concentrations were closely correlated (slope −0.0061 ‰ δ15N per μmol eq N gdw −1), and δ34S values were linearly correlated with sulfur concentrations (slope −0.0576 ‰ δ34S per μmol eq S gdw −1). It follows that in the same soil samples sulfur concentrations were linearly correlated with the nitrogen concentrations (slope 0.0527), and δ34S values were linearly correlated with δ15N values (slope 0.459). A correlation of the sulfur and nitrogen isotope abundances on a Δ basis (which considers the different relative frequencies of 15N and 34S), however, revealed an isotope fractionation that was higher by a factor of 5 for sulfur than for nitrogen (slope 5.292). These correlations indicate a long term synchronous mineralization of organic nitrogen and sulfur compounds in the soil accompanied by element-specific isotope fractionations. Based on different sulfur isotope abundance of the soil (δ34S=0.9 ‰ for total sulfur of the organic layer was assumed to be equivalent to about −1.0 ‰ for soil sulfate) and of the atmospheric SO2 deposition (δ34S=2.0 ‰ at the healthy site and 2.3 ‰ at the declining site) the contribution of atmospheric SO2 to total sulfur of the needles was estimated. This contribution increased from about 20 % in current-year needles to more than 50 % in 3-year-old needles. The proportion of sulfur from atmospheric deposition was equivalent to the age dependent sulfate accumulation in the needles. In contrast to the accumulation of atmospheric sulfur compounds nitrogen compounds from atmospheric deposition were metabolized and were used for growth. The implications of both responses to atmospheric deposition are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Boreal forest ; Nitrogen, phosphorus, and cation nutrition ; Stable isotopes ; Picea glauca Calamagrostis Vaccinium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Natural abundances of nitrogen isotopes, δ15N, indicate that, in the same habitat, Alaskan Picea glauca and P. mariana use a different soil nitrogen compartment from the evergreen shrub Vaccinium vitis-idaea or the deciduous grass Calamagrostis canadensis. The very low δ15N values (-7.7 ‰) suggest that (1) Picea mainly uses inorganic nitrogen (probably mainly ammonium) or organic N in fresh litter, (2) Vaccinium (-4.3 ‰) with its ericoid mycorrhizae uses more stable organic matter, and (3) Calamagrostis (+0.9 ‰) exploits deeper soil horizons with higher δ15N values of soil N. We conclude that species limited by the same nutrient may coexist by drawing on different pools of soil N in a nutrient-deficient environment. The differences among life-forms decrease with increasing N availability. The different levels of δ15N are associated with different nitrogen concentrations in leaves, Picea having a lower N concentration (0.62 mmol g−1) than Vaccinium (0.98 mmol g−1) or Calamagrostis (1.33 mmol g−1). An extended vector analysis by Timmer and Armstrong (1987) suggests that N is the most limiting element for Picea in this habitat, causing needle yellowing at N concentrations below 0.5 mmol g−1 or N contents below 2 mmol needle−1. Increasing N supply had an exponential effect on twig and needle growth. Phosphorus, potassium and magnesium are at marginal supply, but no interaction between ammonium supply and needle Mg concentration could be detected. Calcium is in adequate supply on both calcareous and acidic soils. The results are compared with European conditions of excessive N supply from anthropogenic N depositions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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