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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-5217
    Keywords: Reliability-based optimization ; structural reliability ; cost function ; nonlinear programming ; Monte Carlo simulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
    Notes: Abstract A method to carry out a Reliability-Based Optimization (RBO) of especially nonlinear structural systems is introduced. Statistical uncertainties involving both structural and loading properties are considered. The concept is based on the separation of structural reliability analyses and the optimization procedures. Two approaches are discussed, depending on the interaction of reliability analysis and mathematical programming and the way of representation of the limit state functions (LSF) of the structure. As, for cases of practical significance, the LSF is known only pointwise it is approximated by Response Surfaces (RS). For the response calculations Finite Element (FE) procedures are utilized. Failure probabilities are determined by applying variance reducing Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) techniques such as Importance Sampling (IS). Following the reliability analysis, the optimization procedure is controlled by the NLPQL algorithm. A numerical example in terms of a template ocean platform exemplifies the procedures.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Prolidase ; Metalloprotease ; Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis ; Nucleotide sequence analysis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract From a genomic library of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis (DSM7290) DNA, in the low-copy-number vector pLG339, a recombinant clone was selected, which complemented a mutation in the prolidase gene (pepQ) of Escherichia coli UK173. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 1104 nucleotides corresponding to a protein of 368 amino acids with a calculated pI of 4.64 and a molecular mass of 41087 Da. The start site of pepQ transcription was determined by primer extension analysis with mRNA prepared from L. delbrueckii. Based on homology of the gene product to various peptidases and on the substrate specificity determined, the peptidase was designated PepQ. The influence of various protease inhibitors and cations on peptidase activity indicated that PepQ is a metalloprotease. The absence of a membrane-spanning domain and a signal peptide sequence argues for a cytoplasmic localization of the enzyme.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key wordsSaccharomyces cerevisiae ; Gluconeogenesis ; Malate synthase ; Transcriptional regulation ; MLS1
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The malate synthase gene, MLS1, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is transcriptionally regulated by the carbon source in the growth medium. A MLS1-lacZ fusion gene, expressed at a basal level in the presence of 2% glucose, is derepressed more than 100-fold under conditions of sugar limitation. No evidence for MLS1 induction by oleic acid was found. By deletion analysis of the MLS1 control region, we identified two sites, UAS1 and UAS2, as important for efficient derepression of the gene. Both sites contain sequences that resemble the previously characterized carbon source-responsive element (CSRE) found in the promoter of the isocitrate lyase gene ICL1. Indeed, UAS1 and UAS2 in the MLS1 upstream region turn out to be functional CSRE sequence variants. This finding allowed us to define a modified version of the CSRE consensus sequence (CCRTYSRNCCG). Protein binding to UAS1MLS1 was observed with extracts from derepressed but not from repressed cells, and could be competed for by an excess of the unlabelled CSRE(ICL1) sequence. No competition was observed with a mutated CSRE variant. Site-directed mutagenesis of both CSREs in the MLS1 promoter reduced gene activation under derepressing conditions to 20% of the wild-type level. The same decrease was observed with the wild-type MLS1 promoter in a cat8 mutant, lacking an activator of CSRE-dependent transcription. The CSRE/Cat8p-independent activation of MLS1 is mediated by constitutive UAS elements. The pleiotropic transcription factor Abf1p, which binds to the MLS1 upstream region, may contribute to constitutive activation. Thus, in order to ensure the severe glucose repression of MLS1 observed, repressor elements that respond to the carbon source must counteract constitutive activation. In summary, ICL1 and MLS1 share common cis-acting elements, although a distinct mechanism of carbon source control also contributes to MLS1 regulation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-2145
    Keywords: Key words Pollen ; Pollen competition ; Pollen performance ; Microgametophyte
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  We examined the influence of pollen competitive environment on pollen performance in Mirabilis jalapa. We used the number of pollen grains and the number of pollen tubes per pistil as measures of pollen competition. Pollen germination, pollen tube penetration into the style, and pollen tube growth rates were used as measures of pollen performance. All three measures of pollen performance were affected by the competitive environment. Pollen germination was greatest at intermediate pollen load sizes. The percentage of germinated pollen grains that penetrated the stigma and grew into the style decreased with pollen load size. Pollen tube growth rate in the style was greater and more variable with larger numbers of pollen tubes in the style. Controlling for the degree of selection at the stigma indicated that pollen-pollen or pollen-style interactions were the likely causes of increased growth rates.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words Transcriptional regulation ; Phospholipid biosynthesis ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; INO2
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Expression of structural genes of phospholipid biosynthesis in yeast is mediated by the inositol/choline-responsive element (ICRE). ICRE-dependent gene activation, requiring the regulatory genes INO2 and INO4, is repressed in the presence of the phospholipid precursors inositol and choline. INO2 and, to a less extent, INO4 are positively autoregulated by functional ICRE sequences in the respective upstream regions. However, an INO2 allele devoid of its ICRE functionally complemented an ino2 mutation and completely restored inositol/choline regulation of Ino2p-dependent reporter genes. Low-level expression of INO2 and INO4 genes, each under control of the heterologous MET25 promoter, did not alter the regulatory pattern of target genes. Thus, upstream regions of INO2 and INO4 are not crucial for transcriptional control of ICRE-dependent genes by inositol and choline. Interestingly, over-expression of INO2, but not of INO4, counteracted repression by phospholipid precursors. Possibly, a functional antagonism between INO2 and a negative regulator is the key event responsible for repression or de-repression.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archive of applied mechanics 69 (1999), S. 765-784 
    ISSN: 1432-0681
    Keywords: Key words Finite elements, statistical equivalent linearization, component-mode synthesis, complex modal analysis, random eigenvalue problem, hysteresis, damping
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Summary This paper focuses on the stochastic dynamic response of structures modeled by finite elements with a relatively large number of degrees of freedom. FE models with nonlinearities and uncertain (stochastic) system properties are discussed. It is shown that component mode synthesis can be used most advantageously to solve the issue of computational efficiency and feasibility. The stochastic response due to stochastic loading of large FE models with nonlinear elements is determined by statistical equivalent linearization (EQL). The developed component-mode synthesis allows to determine the complex modal properties of arbitrary large linearized finite element models. Nonsymmetric structural matrices, as a result of the EQL, and filters for modeling of filtered white noise can be treated by the suggested approach. Since the efficiency of the procedure is nearly independent of the number of degrees-of-freedom (DOF) involved, statistical equivalent linearization becomes applicable for arbitrary detailed FE models. Furthermore, the dynamic response of FE models with uncertain or stochastic system properties is discussed. In this case, Monte Carlo simulation is suggested as the most appropriate approach for FE models. The paper focuses on the random eigenvalue problem for large FE systems as the computationally most demanding part of the dynamic analysis. Component-mode synthesis is used to provide in an efficient manner all the eigenvalue solutions of the FE system needed by the Monte Carlo simulation.
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