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  • Springer  (91)
  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (22)
  • Amsterdam : Elsevier  (3)
  • Geological Society of America (GSA)
  • 2000-2004  (24)
  • 1995-1999  (92)
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  • 1
    Call number: ILP/M 06.0340
    In: Publication of the International Lithosphere Programme
    In: Tectonophysics
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: x, 309 S. : graph. Darst.
    Series Statement: [Publication of the International Lithosphere Programme] 268,1-4 : special issue
    Language: English
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Call number: ILP/M 06.0347
    In: Publication of the International Lithosphere Programme
    In: Tectonophysics
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: ix, 241 S. : Ill., graph. Darst.
    Series Statement: [Publication of the International Lithosphere Programme] 313,1-2 : special issue
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Call number: ILP/M 06.0353
    In: Publication of the International Lithosphere Programme
    In: Tectonophysics
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: vi, 271 S. : Ill., graph. Darst.
    Series Statement: [Publication of the International Lithosphere Programme] 381,1-4 : special issue
    Language: English
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-2657
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Mechanically skinned fibre preparations from the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the rat were used to test whether a rise in myoplasmic [NH4 +] in the range 2–10 mm interferes with the mechanism of excitation-contraction coupling in fast-twitch mammalian muscle. Under our conditions (pH 7.10, Mg2+ 1 mm, temperature 23° C), [NH4 +] up to 10 mm had little effect on the Ca+-activated force and on the peak of the t-system depolarization-induced force response. However, the duration of the depolarization-induced force response was decreased significantly at [NH4 +] ≥2 mm. From these data we conclude that the intracellular accumulation of NH4 + is not likely to play a major role in fatigue. Nevertheless, the build up of NH4 + during fatigue, may have a significant inhibitory effect on the force output by decreasing the duration of the t-system depolarization-induced activation of the contractile apparatus.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-2657
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The main objective of this study was to analyse glycogen in single muscle fibres, using a recently developed microfluorometric method which detects subpicomol amounts of NADPH, glucose and glycogen (as glucosyl units) (detection limit 0.16–0.17pmol in a 25nl sample) without fluorochrome amplification. The fibres were freshly dissected from the twitch region of the iliofibularis muscle of the cane toad (Bufo marinus), and were mechanically skinned under paraffin oil to gain access to the intracellular compartments. The results show that: (1) glycogen concentrations in toad skeletal muscle fibres range between 25.8 and 369mmol glucosyl units/litre fibre volume; (2) there is a large variation in glycogen content between individual fibres from the iliofibularis muscle of one animal; (3) there are seasonal differences in the glycogen content of toad single muscle fibres; (4) the total amount of glycogen in single muscle fibres of the toad does not decrease significantly when storing the tissue, under paraffin oil, at 20–25°C for up to 6h or at 4°C for up to 24h; and (5) 15–26% of fibre glycogen can be washed in an aqueous solution at pH 5–7, within 5min, while 74–85% of fibre glycogen remains associated with the washed skinned fibre, even after 40min exposure of the skinned fibre preparation to the aqueous environment. The retention of most glycogen in the fibre preparation after mechanical removal of the plasma membrane and extensive washing indicates that in toad skeletal muscle fibres the largest proportion of glycogen is tightly bound to intracellular structures. The results also show that the skinned muscle fibre preparation is well suited for microfluorometric glycogen determination, since low molecular weight non-glycogen contributors to the fluorescence signal can be removed from the myoplasmic space prior to the glycogen hydrolysis step.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words Expression quantification ; Glutamine synthetase ; Pathogenesis ; Nitrogen metabolism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Experiments were designed to clone and identify genes of the fungal phytopathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides expressed at high levels during growth on the compatible host Stylosanthes guianensis when compared with expression in axenic culture. A cDNA clone (pCgGS) that hybridised preferentially to a cDNA probe prepared from infected leaves was isolated by the differential screening of a cDNA library from a nitrogen-starved axenic culture of C. gloeosporioides. The DNA sequence of pCgGS is highly homologous to genes for glutamine synthetase (GS) in other organisms. pCgGS contained all of the conserved regions assigned as catalytic domains in GS enzymes. Comparison with genomic sequences indicated that in C. gloeosporioides the GS gene is present as a single copy with three introns. To our knowledge this is the first report of the cloning of a GS from a filamentous fungus. A second clone (pCgRL1) was also isolated and represented a partial cDNA of the 25s rRNA of C. gloeosporioides. Because pCgRL1 did not hybridise to plant rRNA under high-stringency hybridisation conditions, it was used as a reference to quantify the expression of fungal GS mRNA during pathogenesis in S. guianensis compared to fungal growth in axenic culture. The results indicated that elevated expression of GS occurred during pathogenesis of C. gloeosporioides on S. guianensis, particularly at early stages of infection where expression was about six-times higher than during growth in rich culture media. This work also demonstrates that fungal-specific 25s rRNA fragments, such as pCgRL1, have considerable utility as a reference for quantifying pathogen gene expression in infected plants.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Wheat ; Microsatellite markers
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In eukaryotes, tandem arrays of simple-sequence repeat sequences can find applications as highly variable and multi-allelic PCR-based genetic markers. In hexaploid bread wheat, a large-genome inbreeding species with low levels of RFLP, di- and trinucleotide tandem repeats were found in 22 published gene sequences, two of which were converted to PCR-based markers. These were shown to be genome-specific and displayed high levels of variation. These characteristics make them especially suitable for intervarietal breeding applications.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Microgametophyte selection ; Pollen selection ; Pollen competition ; Cucurbita texana ; Cucurbita pepo
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We examined the effects of pollen selection for rapid pollen-tube growth on progeny vigor. First, we crossed a wild gourd (Cucurbita texana) to a cultivated zucchini (Cucurbita pepo cv ‘Black Beauty’) to produce an F1 and then an F2 generation. Half of the F1 seeds were produced by depositing small loads of C. texana pollen onto the stigmas of C. pepo. These small pollen loads were insufficient to produce a full complement of seeds and, consequently, both the fast- and the slow-growing pollen tubes were permitted to achieve fertilization. An F2 generation was then produced by depositing small loads of F1 pollen onto stigmas of F1 plants. The F2 seeds resulting from two generations of small pollen loads are termed the non-selected line because there was little or no selection for pollen-tube growth rate on these plants. The other half of the F1 and F2 seeds were produced by depositing large pollen loads (〉10 000 pollen grains) onto stigmas and then allowing only the first 1% or so of the pollen tubes that entered the ovary to fertilize the ovules. We did this by excising the styles at the ovary at 12–15 h after pollination. The resulting F2 seeds are termed ‘the selected line’ because they were produced by two generations of selection for only the fastest growing pollen tubes. Small pollen loads from the F2plants, both the selected and the non-selected lines, were then deposited onto stigmas of different C. pepo flowers, and the vigor of the resulting seeds was compared under greenhouse and field conditions. The results showed that the seeds fertilized by pollen from the selected line had greater vegetative vigor as seedlings and greater flower and fruit production as mature plants than the seeds fertilized by pollen from the non-selected line. This study demonstrates that selection for fast pollen-tube growth (selection on the microgametophyte) leads to a correlated increase in sporophyte (progeny) vigor.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Wheat ; PCR ; Microsatellite ; Simple sequence repeats
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  The development of large panels of simple-to-analyse genetic markers for tagging agronomically important genes and diversity studies in hexaploid bread wheat is an important goal in applied cereal genetic research. We have isolated and sequenced over 200 clones containing microsatellites from the wheat genome and have tested 153 primer pairs for genetic polymorphism using a panel of ten wheat varieties, including the parents of our main mapping cross. A subset comprising 49 primer pairs detects 76 loci, of which 74 can be unequivocably allocated to one of the wheat chromosomes. A relatively low frequency of the loci detected are from the D genome, and these loci show less polymorphism than those from the A and B genomes. Generally, the microsatellites show high levels of genetic polymorphism and an average of 3.5 alleles per locus with an average polymorphism information content (PIC), value of 0.51. The observed levels of polymorphism are positively correlated with the length of the microsatellite repeats. A high proportion, approximately two-thirds, of primer pairs designed to detect simple sequence repeat (SSR) variation in wheat do not generate the expected amplification products and, more significantly, often generate unresolvable PCR products. In general, our results agree closely with those obtained from other recent studies using microsatellites in plants.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words PCR markers ; Sequence-tagged-site ; Wheat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  PCR products from regions corresponding to sequences hybridising to wheat RFLP probes were sequenced in order to establish the level of DNA sequence variation among adapted wheat genotypes. Hexaploid bread wheat shows a very low rate of nucleotide polymorphism, approximately 1 polymorphic nucleotide per 1000 basepairs. Differences in PCR product length can be exploited to design genome-specific amplicons, which may have use in gene tagging or in diagnostic applications. Interpretation of results may be complicated by the simultaneous amplification of orthologous and paralogous sequences. These findings have significant implications for the use of STS markers in wheat and other polyploid species.
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