A multiproxy study of a 7 m long sedimentary sequence from Lake La Parra (39°50.948', 1°52', 1014 m a.s.l.) supported by 11 14 C AMS and 210 Pb/ 137 Cs dates provides a robust, high-resolution hydrological and environmental variability record for the last 1600 years of the Las Torcas sinkhole Complex in the Central Iberian Range. The succession of depositional environments in Lake La Parra sinkhole is controlled by both changes in the regional water table and by the balance between sedimentary input through ephemeral creeks and in-lake production of carbonates and organic matter. Although synergetic links with climate are likely, phases of increased sediment delivery to the lake at c . ad 500–700, c . ad 1000, ad 1450–1500, ad 1550–650 and since 1700 till recent times are driven primarily by human impact in the watershed. Prior to c . ad 300, the sinkhole was dry, then became a lake at the end of the Roman Period ( ad 350) when the doline was flooded, and it has not dried out during the last 1600 years. Moderate lake levels with deposition of coarser clastic facies dominated up to the 12th century ( ad 400–1200), and relatively higher levels with deposition of laminated facies during the 13th–15th centuries ( ad 1200–1600). The pattern of palaeohydrological evolution at a centennial scale is roughly coherent with most Iberian lacustrine records; however, the ‘La Parra’ sequence indicates that increased humidity during Iberian–Roman times was restricted to southern Spain and the humid phases of the ‘Little Ice Age’ (‘LIA’) starting and ending earlier in the central Iberian Range compared with the Pyrenean Domain and southern Spain. This new sequence highlights the heterogeneity through space and time of the main dry and wet climatic periods at shorter scales, emphasizing the impact of latitudinal climate gradients on the Iberian Peninsula climate variability.