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  • Wiley  (2)
  • SPRINGER
  • ASLO (Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-02-10
    Description: Methods for measuring aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) rates in aquatic environments are often based on the incubation of water samples, during which the consumption of methane (CH4) is monitored. Typically, incubation vessels are sealed with butyl rubber because these elastomers are essentially impermeable for gases. We report on the potential toxicity of five different commercially available, lab-grade butyl stoppers on MOx activity in samples from marine and lacustrine environments. MOx rates in incubations sealed with non-halogenated butyl were 〉 50% lower compared to parallel incubations with halogenated butyl rubber stoppers, suggesting toxic effects associated with the use of the non-halogenated butyl type. Aqueous extracts of non-halogenated butyl rubber were contaminated with high amounts of various organic compounds including potential bactericides such as benzyltoluenes and phenylalkanes. Comparably small amounts of organic contaminants were liberated from the halogenated butyl rubber stoppers but only two halogenated stopper types were found that did not seem to leach any organics into the incubation medium. Furthermore, the non-halogenated and two types of the halogenated butyl elastomers additionally leached comparably high amounts of zinc. While the source of the apparent toxicity with the use of the non-halogenated rubber stoppers remains elusive, our results indicate that leaching of contaminants from some butyl rubber stoppers can severely interfere with the activity of MOx communities, highlighting the importance of testing rubber stoppers for their respective contamination potential. The impact of leachates from butyl rubber on the assessment of biogeochemical reaction rates other than MOx seems likely but needs to be verified.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-16
    Description: In the eastern part of Lake Constance, the second largest pre-alpine Lake in Europe, about five hundred pockmarks (morphological depressions on the lake floor) were recently discovered of which ~ 40% release methane bubbles. The carbon isotopic composition of the escaping gas indicated that the methane is of biogenic origin. In our study, we investigated the fate of the released methane bubbles, i.e., the dissolution, oxidation or transport of the bubbles to the surface. At a littoral pockmark site (PM12, 12 m water depth) and a profundal pockmark (PM80, 80 m water depth), we analysed the dissolved methane concentrations and the methane isotopic carbon signature in the water column. At PM80, higher methane concentrations (up to 1523 nM), compared to the control site and the surface waters (225 ± 72 nM), were recorded only on some occasions and only in the bottom water, despite the fact that the released bubbles were dissolving within the hypolimnion based on bubble modeling. The isotope data suggest that most of the dissolved methane is oxidized below 40 m water depth. The isotopic signature of the methane in the surface water at PM80, however, differed from that of the methane in the hypolimnion; therefore, the surface methane at this profundal site is most likely an export product from the littoral zone. Assuming an initial bubble diameter of 5 mm, we calculated that these small bubbles would reach the surface, but approximately 96% of the methane would have dissolved from the bubble into the hypolimnion. At PM12, we observed higher concentrations of dissolved methane (312 ± 52 nM) with no significant differences between seasons or between control sites versus pockmark site. In the shallow water, divers estimated the bubble size to be 10 - 15 mm, which from a release depth of 12 m would barely dissolved in to the water column. The isotopic signature also indicated that there had been almost no methane oxidation in the shallow water column. Thus, the water depth of bubble release as well as the initial bubble size determine whether the methane enters the atmosphere largely unhindered (shallow site) or if the released methane is incorporated into the profundal water column.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
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