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  • Oxford University Press  (318)
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  • 1
    Unknown
    Oxford [England] ; New York : Oxford University Press
    Keywords: Greece, History, To 146 B.C. ; Grèce, Histoire, Jusqu'à 146 av. J.-C. ; Rome, Histoire. ; Rome, History. ; Civilisation ancienne. ; Civilization, Classical.
    Pages: xi, 151 p.
    ISBN: 0-19-518490-4
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  • 2
    Unknown
    Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press
    Keywords: Mouvements sociaux. ; Social movements.
    Notes: pt. I. Introduction. Opportunities and identities: bridge-building in the study of social movements / David S. Meyer -- pt. II. States and policies. State repression and democracy protest in three southeast Asian countries / Vincent Boudreau -- Mobilization on the South African gold mines / T. Dunbar Moodie -- Multiple meditations: the state and the women's movements in India / Manisha Desai -- The contradictions of gay ethnicity: forging identity in Vermont / Mary Bernstein -- Creating social change: lessons from the civil rights movement / Kenneth T. Andrews -- pt. III. Organization and strategies. The "meso" in social movement research / Suzanne Staggenborg -- Strategizing and the sense of context: reflections on the first two weeks of the Liverpool docks lockout, September-October 1995 / Colin Barker and Michael Lavalette -- Factions and the continuity of political challengers / Mildred A. Schwartz -- More than one feminism: organizational structure and the construction of collective identity / Jo Reger -- The development of individual identity and consciousness among movements of the left and right / Rebecca E. Klatch -- pt. IV. Collective identities, discourse, and culture. Toward a more dialogic analysis of social movement culture / Marc W. Steinberg -- Materialist feminist discourse analysis and social movement research: mapping the changing context for "community control" / Nancy A. Naples -- From the "beloved community" to "family values": religious language, symbolic repertoires, and democratic culture / Rhys H. Williams -- External political change, collective identities, and participation in social movement organizations / Belinda Robnett -- pt. V. Conclusion. Meaning and structure in social movements / Nancy Whittier
    Pages: xvi, 366 p.
    ISBN: 0-19-530277-X
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-11-28
    Description: We present a new technique for the statistical evaluation of the Tully–Fisher relation (TFR) using spectral line stacking. This technique has the potential to extend TFR observations to lower masses and higher redshifts than possible through a galaxy-by-galaxy analysis. It further avoids the need for individual galaxy inclination measurements. To quantify the properties of stacked H i emission lines, we consider a simplistic model of galactic discs with analytically expressible line profiles. Using this model, we compare the widths of stacked profiles with those of individual galaxies. We then follow the same procedure using more realistic mock galaxies drawn from the S 3 -SAX model (a derivative of the Millennium simulation). Remarkably, when stacking the apparent H i lines of galaxies with similar absolute magnitude and random inclinations, the width of the stack is very similar to the width of the deprojected (= corrected for inclination) and dedispersed (= after removal of velocity dispersion) input lines. Therefore, the ratio between the widths of the stack and the deprojected/dedispersed input lines is approximately constant – about 0.93 – with very little dependence on the gas dispersion, galaxy mass, galaxy morphology and shape of the rotation curve. Finally, we apply our technique to construct a stacked TFR using H i Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS) data which already has a well-defined TFR based on individual detections. We obtain a B -band TFR with a slope of –8.5 ± 0.4 and a K -band relation with a slope of –11.7 ± 0.6 for the HIPASS data set which is consistent with the existing results.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-11-26
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 5
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-11-19
    Description: Cichlid fishes provide textbook examples of explosive phenotypic diversification and sympatric speciation, thereby making them ideal systems for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying rapid lineage divergence. Despite the fact that gene regulation provides a critical link between diversification in gene function and speciation, many genomic regulatory mechanisms such as microRNAs (miRNAs) have received little attention in these rapidly diversifying groups. Therefore, we investigated the posttranscriptional regulatory role of miRNAs in the repeated sympatric divergence of Midas cichlids (Amphilophus spp.) from Nicaraguan crater lakes. Using miRNA and mRNA sequencing of embryos from five Midas species, we first identified miRNA binding sites in mRNAs and highlighted the presences of a surprising number of novel miRNAs in these adaptively radiating species. Then, through analyses of expression levels, we identified putative miRNA/gene target pairs with negatively correlated expression level that were consistent with the role of miRNA in downregulating mRNA. Furthermore, we determined that several miRNA/gene pairs show convergent expression patterns associated with the repeated benthic/limnetic sympatric species divergence implicating these miRNAs as potential molecular mechanisms underlying replicated sympatric divergence. Finally, as these candidate miRNA/gene pairs may play a central role in phenotypic diversification in these cichlids, we characterized the expression domains of selected miRNAs and their target genes via in situ hybridization, providing further evidence that miRNA regulation likely plays a role in the Midas cichlid adaptive radiation. These results provide support for the hypothesis that extremely quickly evolving miRNA regulation can contribute to rapid evolutionary divergence even in the presence of gene flow.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: archive
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-08-29
    Description: On average, mutations are deleterious to proteins. Mutations conferring new function to a protein often come at the expense of protein folding or stability, reducing overall activity. Over the years, a panel of T7 RNA polymerases have been designed or evolved to accept nucleotides with modified ribose moieties. These modified RNAs have proven useful, especially in vivo , but the transcriptional yields tend to be quite low. Here we show that mutations previously shown to increase the thermal tolerance of T7 RNA polymerase can increase the activity of mutants with expanded substrate range. The resulting polymerase mutants can be used to generate 2' -O- methyl modified RNA with yields much higher than enzymes currently employed.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-09-03
    Description: We report the discovery of a low-mass companion to the nearby ( d = 47 pc) F7V star HD 984. The companion is detected 0.19 arcsec away from its host star in the L ' band with the Apodized Phase Plate on NaCo/Very Large Telescope and was recovered by L '-band non-coronagraphic imaging data taken a few days later. We confirm the companion is comoving with the star with SINFONI integral field spectrograph H + K data. We present the first published data obtained with SINFONI in pupil-tracking mode. HD 984 has been argued to be a kinematic member of the 30 Myr-old Columba group, and its HR diagram position is not altogether inconsistent with being a zero-age main sequence star of this age. By consolidating different age indicators, including isochronal age, coronal X-ray emission, and stellar rotation, we independently estimate a main-sequence age of 115 ± 85 Myr (95 per cent CL) which does not rely on this kinematic association. The mass of directly imaged companions are usually inferred from theoretical evolutionary tracks, which are highly dependent on the age of the star. Based on the age extrema, we demonstrate that with our photometric data alone, the companion's mass is highly uncertain: between 33 and 96 M Jup (0.03–0.09 M ) using the COND evolutionary models. We compare the companion's SINFONI spectrum with field dwarf spectra to break this degeneracy. Based on the slope and shape of the spectrum in the H band, we conclude that the companion is an M6.0 ± 0.5 dwarf. The age of the system is not further constrained by the companion, as M dwarfs are poorly fit on low-mass evolutionary tracks. This discovery emphasizes the importance of obtaining a spectrum to spectral type companions around F-stars.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-10-15
    Description: The Yellowstone–East Snake River Plain hotspot track has been intensely studied since several decades and is widely considered to result from the interaction of a mantle plume with the North American plate. An integrated conclusive geodynamic interpretation of this extensive data set is however presently still lacking, and our knowledge of the dynamical processes beneath Yellowstone is patchy. It has been argued that the Yellowstone plume has delaminated the lower part of the thick Wyoming cratonic lithosphere. We derive an original dynamic model to quantify delamination processes related to mantle plume–lithosphere interactions. We show that fast (~300 ka) lithospheric delamination is consistent with the observed timing of formation of successive volcanic centres along the Yellowstone hotspot track and requires (i) a tensile stress regime within the whole lithosphere exceeding its failure threshold, (ii) a purely plastic rheology in the lithosphere when stresses reach this yield limit, (iii) a dense lower part of the 200 km thick Wyoming lithosphere and (iv) a decoupling melt horizon inside the median part of the lithosphere. We demonstrate that all these conditions are verified and that ~150 km large and ~100 km thick lithospheric blocks delaminate within 300 ka when the Yellowstone plume ponded below the 200 km thick Wyoming cratonic lithosphere. Furthermore, we take advantage of the available extensive regional geophysical and geological observation data sets to design a numerical 3-D upper-mantle convective model. We propose a map of the ascending convective sheets contouring the Yellowstone plume. The model further evidences the development of a counter-flow within the lower part of the lithosphere centred just above the Yellowstone mantle plume axis. This counter-flow controls the local lithospheric stress field, and as a result the trajectories of feeder dykes linking the partial melting source within the core of the mantle plume with the crust by crosscutting the lithospheric mantle. This counter-flow further explains the 50 km NE shift observed between the mantle plume axis and the present-day Yellowstone Caldera as well as the peculiar shaped crustal magma chambers.
    Keywords: Geodynamics and Tectonics
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Deutsche Geophysikalische Gesellschaft (DGG) and the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-10-18
    Description: The visual system in the colorful cichlid fishes from the African great lakes is believed to be important for their adaptive radiations. However, few studies have attempted to compare the visual system of radiating cichlid lineages with that of cichlids that have not undergone recent radiations. One such study published in this journal (Schott RK, Refvik SP, Hauser FE, López-Fernández H, Chang BSW. 2014. Divergent positive selection in rhodopsin from lake and riverine cichlid fishes. Mol Biol Evol. 31:1149–1165) found divergent selection on rhodopsin between African lacustrine and riverine cichlid species and riverine Neotropical cichlids, concluding that ecology drives the molecular evolution of this opsin. Here, we expand this analysis by incorporating rhodopsin sequences from Neotropical lacustrine cichlids and show that both ecology and phylogeny are important drivers of the molecular evolution of rhodopsin in cichlids. We found little overlap of sites under selection between African and Neotropical lineages and a faster rate of molecular evolution in African compared with Neotropical cichlids. These results support the notion that genetic or population genetic features particular to African cichlids contributed to their radiations.
    Print ISSN: 0737-4038
    Electronic ISSN: 1537-1719
    Topics: Biology
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