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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-09-25
    Description: The coordination between nuclear and organellar genes is essential to many aspects of eukaryotic life, including basic metabolism, energy production, and ultimately, organismal fitness. Although nuclear genes are biparentally inherited, mitochondrial and chloroplast genes are almost exclusively maternally inherited, and this asymmetry may lead to a bias in the chromosomal distribution of nuclear genes whose products act in the mitochondria or chloroplasts. In particular, because X-linked genes have a higher probability of cotransmission with organellar genes (2/3) compared with autosomal genes (1/2), selection for coadaptation has been predicted to lead to an overrepresentation of nuclear-mitochondrial and nuclear-chloroplast genes on the X chromosome relative to autosomes. In contrast, the occurrence of sexually antagonistic organellar mutations might lead to selection for movement of cytonuclear genes from the X chromosome to autosomes to reduce male mutation load. Recent broad-scale comparative studies of N-mt distributions in animals have found evidence for these hypotheses in some species, but not others. Here, we use transcriptome sequences to conduct the first study of the chromosomal distribution of cytonuclear interacting genes in a plant species with sex chromosomes ( Rumex hastatulus ; Polygonaceae). We found no evidence of under- or overrepresentation of either N-mt or N-cp genes on the X chromosome, and thus no support for either the coadaptation or the sexual-conflict hypothesis. We discuss how our results from a species with recently evolved sex chromosomes fit into an emerging picture of the evolutionary forces governing the chromosomal distribution of nuclear-mitochondrial and nuclear-chloroplast genes.
    Electronic ISSN: 1759-6653
    Topics: Biology
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-07-23
    Description: Due to the failure of international efforts to limit atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases, consideration is now being given to solar geoengineering—a deliberate intervention to limit global warming without altering the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. In contrast to emission cuts, geoengineering is expected to be cheap, quick to lower temperature, and feasible through the use of a single intervention. However, geoengineering is an imperfect substitute for emission reductions and will likely have undesirable side effects, only some of which can be anticipated before geoengineering is deployed. Most importantly, because geoengineering can be undertaken unilaterally, it creates issues of governance: Who gets to decide if, when, and how geoengineering should be attempted? This article provides an introduction to the key issues surrounding the governance of this unprecedented technology. ( JEL : Q54, F53, K33)
    Keywords: Q54 - Climate ; Natural Disasters ; Global Warming, F53 - International Agreements and Observance ; International Organizations, K33 - International Law
    Print ISSN: 1750-6816
    Electronic ISSN: 1750-6824
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Political Science , Economics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-06-28
    Description: The remarkable selectivity of N -methyl mesoporphyrin IX (NMM) for G-quadruplexes (GQs) is long known, however its ability to stabilize and bind GQs has not been investigated in detail. Through the use of circular dichroism, UV-visible spectroscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) melting assay we have shown that NMM stabilizes human telomeric DNA dAG 3 (TTAG 3 ) 3 (Tel22) and is selective for its parallel conformation to which it binds in 1:1 stoichiometry with a binding constant of ~1.0 x 10 5 M –1 . NMM does not interact with an antiparallel conformation of Tel22 in sodium buffer and is the second example in the literature, after TOxaPy, of a ligand with an excellent selectivity for a specific GQ structure. NMM's stabilizing ability toward predominantly parallel GQ conformation is universal: it stabilizes a variety of biologically relevant G-rich sequences including telomeres and oncogene promoters. The N -methyl group is integral for selectivity and stabilization, as the unmethylated analogue, mesoporphyrin IX, does not stabilize GQ DNA in FRET melting assays. Finally, NMM induces the isomerization of Tel22 into a structure with increased parallel component in K + but not in Na + buffer. The ability of NMM to cause structural rearrangement and efficient stabilization of Tel22 may bear biological significance.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-03-28
    Print ISSN: 1752-993X
    Electronic ISSN: 1752-9921
    Topics: Biology
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