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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-07-19
    Description: The epigenetic regulation of imprinted genes by monoallelic DNA methylation of either maternal or paternal alleles is critical for embryonic growth and development. Imprinted genes were recently shown to be expressed in mammalian adult stem cells to support self-renewal of neural and lung stem cells; however, a role for imprinting per se in adult stem cells remains elusive. Here we show upregulation of growth-restricting imprinted genes, including in the H19-Igf2 locus, in long-term haematopoietic stem cells and their downregulation upon haematopoietic stem cell activation and proliferation. A differentially methylated region upstream of H19 (H19-DMR), serving as the imprinting control region, determines the reciprocal expression of H19 from the maternal allele and Igf2 from the paternal allele. In addition, H19 serves as a source of miR-675, which restricts Igf1r expression. We demonstrate that conditional deletion of the maternal but not the paternal H19-DMR reduces adult haematopoietic stem cell quiescence, a state required for long-term maintenance of haematopoietic stem cells, and compromises haematopoietic stem cell function. Maternal-specific H19-DMR deletion results in activation of the Igf2-Igfr1 pathway, as shown by the translocation of phosphorylated FoxO3 (an inactive form) from nucleus to cytoplasm and the release of FoxO3-mediated cell cycle arrest, thus leading to increased activation, proliferation and eventual exhaustion of haematopoietic stem cells. Mechanistically, maternal-specific H19-DMR deletion leads to Igf2 upregulation and increased translation of Igf1r, which is normally suppressed by H19-derived miR-675. Similarly, genetic inactivation of Igf1r partly rescues the H19-DMR deletion phenotype. Our work establishes a new role for this unique form of epigenetic control at the H19-Igf2 locus in maintaining adult stem cells.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3896866/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3896866/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Venkatraman, Aparna -- He, Xi C -- Thorvaldsen, Joanne L -- Sugimura, Ryohichi -- Perry, John M -- Tao, Fang -- Zhao, Meng -- Christenson, Matthew K -- Sanchez, Rebeca -- Yu, Jaclyn Y -- Peng, Lai -- Haug, Jeffrey S -- Paulson, Ariel -- Li, Hua -- Zhong, Xiao-bo -- Clemens, Thomas L -- Bartolomei, Marisa S -- Li, Linheng -- GM51279/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM087376/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 GM051279/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Aug 15;500(7462):345-9. doi: 10.1038/nature12303. Epub 2013 Jul 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23863936" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult Stem Cells/*cytology/*physiology ; Animals ; Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; *Genomic Imprinting ; Insulin-Like Growth Factor II/*genetics/*metabolism ; Mice ; RNA, Long Noncoding/*genetics/*metabolism ; Receptor, IGF Type 1/genetics ; Signal Transduction ; Transcriptional Activation
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-11-29
    Description: N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most prevalent internal (non-cap) modification present in the messenger RNA of all higher eukaryotes. Although essential to cell viability and development, the exact role of m(6)A modification remains to be determined. The recent discovery of two m(6)A demethylases in mammalian cells highlighted the importance of m(6)A in basic biological functions and disease. Here we show that m(6)A is selectively recognized by the human YTH domain family 2 (YTHDF2) 'reader' protein to regulate mRNA degradation. We identified over 3,000 cellular RNA targets of YTHDF2, most of which are mRNAs, but which also include non-coding RNAs, with a conserved core motif of G(m(6)A)C. We further establish the role of YTHDF2 in RNA metabolism, showing that binding of YTHDF2 results in the localization of bound mRNA from the translatable pool to mRNA decay sites, such as processing bodies. The carboxy-terminal domain of YTHDF2 selectively binds to m(6)A-containing mRNA, whereas the amino-terminal domain is responsible for the localization of the YTHDF2-mRNA complex to cellular RNA decay sites. Our results indicate that the dynamic m(6)A modification is recognized by selectively binding proteins to affect the translation status and lifetime of mRNA.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3877715/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3877715/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Xiao -- Lu, Zhike -- Gomez, Adrian -- Hon, Gary C -- Yue, Yanan -- Han, Dali -- Fu, Ye -- Parisien, Marc -- Dai, Qing -- Jia, Guifang -- Ren, Bing -- Pan, Tao -- He, Chuan -- GM071440/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM088599/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- K01 HG006699/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM071440/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM088599/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jan 2;505(7481):117-20. doi: 10.1038/nature12730. Epub 2013 Nov 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, 929 East 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, UCSD Moores Cancer Center and Institute of Genome Medicine, University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0653, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, 929 East 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; 1] Department of Chemistry and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, 929 East 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA [2] Department of Chemical Biology and Synthetic and Functional Biomolecules Center, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24284625" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine/*analogs & derivatives/metabolism/pharmacology ; Base Sequence ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Nucleotide Motifs ; Organelles/genetics/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Biosynthesis ; *RNA Stability/drug effects ; RNA Transport ; RNA, Messenger/*chemistry/*metabolism ; RNA, Untranslated/chemistry/metabolism ; RNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry/classification/*metabolism ; Substrate Specificity
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2008-12-05
    Description: Haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niches, although proposed decades ago, have only recently been identified as separate osteoblastic and vascular microenvironments. Their interrelationships and interactions with HSCs in vivo remain largely unknown. Here we report the use of a newly developed ex vivo real-time imaging technology and immunoassaying to trace the homing of purified green-fluorescent-protein-expressing (GFP(+)) HSCs. We found that transplanted HSCs tended to home to the endosteum (an inner bone surface) in irradiated mice, but were randomly distributed and unstable in non-irradiated mice. Moreover, GFP(+) HSCs were more frequently detected in the trabecular bone area compared with compact bone area, and this was validated by live imaging bioluminescence driven by the stem-cell-leukaemia (Scl) promoter-enhancer. HSCs home to bone marrow through the vascular system. We found that the endosteum is well vascularized and that vasculature is frequently localized near N-cadherin(+) pre-osteoblastic cells, a known niche component. By monitoring individual HSC behaviour using real-time imaging, we found that a portion of the homed HSCs underwent active division in the irradiated mice, coinciding with their expansion as measured by flow assay. Thus, in contrast to central marrow, the endosteum formed a special zone, which normally maintains HSCs but promotes their expansion in response to bone marrow damage.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Xie, Yucai -- Yin, Tong -- Wiegraebe, Winfried -- He, Xi C -- Miller, Diana -- Stark, Danny -- Perko, Katherine -- Alexander, Richard -- Schwartz, Joel -- Grindley, Justin C -- Park, Jungeun -- Haug, Jeff S -- Wunderlich, Joshua P -- Li, Hua -- Zhang, Simon -- Johnson, Teri -- Feldman, Ricardo A -- Li, Linheng -- England -- Nature. 2009 Jan 1;457(7225):97-101. doi: 10.1038/nature07639. Epub 2008 Dec 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Stowers Institute for Medical Research, 1000 E. 50th Street, Kansas City, Missouri 64110, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19052548" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, CD31/analysis ; Blood Vessels/cytology ; Bone Marrow/pathology ; Cadherins/analysis ; Cell Division ; *Cell Movement ; Cell Separation ; Femur/cytology ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*cytology ; Immunoassay/*methods ; Immunohistochemistry ; Mice ; Models, Animal ; Osteoblasts/cytology ; Stem Cell Niche/*cytology ; Tibia/cytology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-04-17
    Description: Plant innate immunity is activated on the detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) at the cell surface, or of pathogen effector proteins inside the plant cell. Together, PAMP-triggered immunity and effector-triggered immunity constitute powerful defences against various phytopathogens. Pathogenic bacteria inject a variety of effector proteins into the host cell to assist infection or propagation. A number of effector proteins have been shown to inhibit plant immunity, but the biochemical basis remains unknown for the vast majority of these effectors. Here we show that the Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris type III effector AvrAC enhances virulence and inhibits plant immunity by specifically targeting Arabidopsis BIK1 and RIPK, two receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases known to mediate immune signalling. AvrAC is a uridylyl transferase that adds uridine 5'-monophosphate to and conceals conserved phosphorylation sites in the activation loop of BIK1 and RIPK, reducing their kinase activity and consequently inhibiting downstream signalling.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Feng, Feng -- Yang, Fan -- Rong, Wei -- Wu, Xiaogang -- Zhang, Jie -- Chen, She -- He, Chaozu -- Zhou, Jian-Min -- England -- Nature. 2012 Apr 15;485(7396):114-8. doi: 10.1038/nature10962.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22504181" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Arabidopsis/*enzymology/*immunology/microbiology ; Arabidopsis Proteins/*antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/immunology/metabolism ; Bacterial Proteins/*metabolism ; Brassica/immunology/microbiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phosphorylation ; Plant Diseases/immunology/microbiology ; *Plant Immunity/immunology ; Plants, Genetically Modified ; Protein Kinases/chemistry/immunology/metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/*antagonists & ; inhibitors/chemistry/immunology/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Virulence ; Xanthomonas campestris/*enzymology/immunology/pathogenicity
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-01-20
    Description: Exercise has beneficial effects on human health, including protection against metabolic disorders such as diabetes. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying these effects are incompletely understood. The lysosomal degradation pathway, autophagy, is an intracellular recycling system that functions during basal conditions in organelle and protein quality control. During stress, increased levels of autophagy permit cells to adapt to changing nutritional and energy demands through protein catabolism. Moreover, in animal models, autophagy protects against diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, infections, inflammatory diseases, ageing and insulin resistance. Here we show that acute exercise induces autophagy in skeletal and cardiac muscle of fed mice. To investigate the role of exercise-mediated autophagy in vivo, we generated mutant mice that show normal levels of basal autophagy but are deficient in stimulus (exercise- or starvation)-induced autophagy. These mice (termed BCL2 AAA mice) contain knock-in mutations in BCL2 phosphorylation sites (Thr69Ala, Ser70Ala and Ser84Ala) that prevent stimulus-induced disruption of the BCL2-beclin-1 complex and autophagy activation. BCL2 AAA mice show decreased endurance and altered glucose metabolism during acute exercise, as well as impaired chronic exercise-mediated protection against high-fat-diet-induced glucose intolerance. Thus, exercise induces autophagy, BCL2 is a crucial regulator of exercise- (and starvation)-induced autophagy in vivo, and autophagy induction may contribute to the beneficial metabolic effects of exercise.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3518436/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3518436/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉He, Congcong -- Bassik, Michael C -- Moresi, Viviana -- Sun, Kai -- Wei, Yongjie -- Zou, Zhongju -- An, Zhenyi -- Loh, Joy -- Fisher, Jill -- Sun, Qihua -- Korsmeyer, Stanley -- Packer, Milton -- May, Herman I -- Hill, Joseph A -- Virgin, Herbert W -- Gilpin, Christopher -- Xiao, Guanghua -- Bassel-Duby, Rhonda -- Scherer, Philipp E -- Levine, Beth -- 1P01 DK0887761/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P01 DK088761/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA142543/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA109618/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA112023/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK055758/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R0I AI084887/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R0I HL080244/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R0I HL090842/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- RC1 DK086629/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- RCI DK086629/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jan 18;481(7382):511-5. doi: 10.1038/nature10758.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Autophagy Research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22258505" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adiponectin/blood ; Animals ; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Autophagy/drug effects/genetics/*physiology ; Cells, Cultured ; Dietary Fats/adverse effects ; Food Deprivation/physiology ; Gene Knock-In Techniques ; Glucose/*metabolism ; Glucose Intolerance/chemically induced/prevention & control ; Glucose Tolerance Test ; *Homeostasis/drug effects ; Leptin/blood ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Muscle, Skeletal/cytology/drug effects/*metabolism ; Mutation ; Myocardium/cytology/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation/genetics ; Physical Conditioning, Animal/*physiology ; Physical Endurance/genetics/physiology ; Physical Exertion/genetics/physiology ; Protein Binding/genetics ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 ; Running/physiology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-07-06
    Description: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is essential for most Gram-negative bacteria and has crucial roles in protection of the bacteria from harsh environments and toxic compounds, including antibiotics. Seven LPS transport proteins (that is, LptA-LptG) form a trans-envelope protein complex responsible for the transport of LPS from the inner membrane to the outer membrane, the mechanism for which is poorly understood. Here we report the first crystal structure of the unique integral membrane LPS translocon LptD-LptE complex. LptD forms a novel 26-stranded beta-barrel, which is to our knowledge the largest beta-barrel reported so far. LptE adopts a roll-like structure located inside the barrel of LptD to form an unprecedented two-protein 'barrel and plug' architecture. The structure, molecular dynamics simulations and functional assays suggest that the hydrophilic O-antigen and the core oligosaccharide of the LPS may pass through the barrel and the lipid A of the LPS may be inserted into the outer leaflet of the outer membrane through a lateral opening between strands beta1 and beta26 of LptD. These findings not only help us to understand important aspects of bacterial outer membrane biogenesis, but also have significant potential for the development of novel drugs against multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dong, Haohao -- Xiang, Quanju -- Gu, Yinghong -- Wang, Zhongshan -- Paterson, Neil G -- Stansfeld, Phillip J -- He, Chuan -- Zhang, Yizheng -- Wang, Wenjian -- Dong, Changjiang -- 083501/Z/07/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jul 3;511(7507):52-6. doi: 10.1038/nature13464. Epub 2014 Jun 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Biomedical Research Centre, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK [2] Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, School of Chemistry, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9ST, UK. ; 1] Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, School of Chemistry, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9ST, UK [2] Department of Microbiology, College of Resource and Environment Science, Sichuan Agriculture University, Yaan 625000, China. ; Biomedical Research Centre, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK. ; 1] Biomedical Research Centre, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK [2] Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, School of Chemistry, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9ST, UK [3] College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China. ; Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE, UK. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK. ; 1] Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, School of Chemistry, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9ST, UK [2] School of Electronics and Information, Wuhan Technical College of Communications, No.6 Huangjiahu West Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan, Hubei 430065, China. ; College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China. ; Laboratory of Department of Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 58 Zhongshan Road II, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24990744" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Cell Membrane/chemistry/metabolism ; Cell Wall/chemistry/metabolism ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Lipopolysaccharides/chemistry/*metabolism ; Models, Molecular ; Multiprotein Complexes/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Salmonella typhimurium/*chemistry/cytology ; Structure-Activity Relationship
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-04-04
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dominissini, Dan -- He, Chuan -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 10;508(7495):191-2. doi: 10.1038/nature13221. Epub 2014 Apr 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, and at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24695227" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antineoplastic Agents/*pharmacology ; DNA Repair Enzymes/*antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Neoplasms/*drug therapy/*metabolism ; Nucleotides/*metabolism ; Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases/*antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism ; Protein Kinase Inhibitors/*pharmacology ; Pyrazoles/*pharmacology ; Pyridines/*pharmacology
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-11-03
    Description: DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification. Ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins are involved in DNA demethylation through iteratively oxidizing 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). Here we show that human TET1 and TET2 are more active on 5mC-DNA than 5hmC/5fC-DNA substrates. We determine the crystal structures of TET2-5hmC-DNA and TET2-5fC-DNA complexes at 1.80 A and 1.97 A resolution, respectively. The cytosine portion of 5hmC/5fC is specifically recognized by TET2 in a manner similar to that of 5mC in the TET2-5mC-DNA structure, and the pyrimidine base of 5mC/5hmC/5fC adopts an almost identical conformation within the catalytic cavity. However, the hydroxyl group of 5hmC and carbonyl group of 5fC face towards the opposite direction because the hydroxymethyl group of 5hmC and formyl group of 5fC adopt restrained conformations through forming hydrogen bonds with the 1-carboxylate of NOG and N4 exocyclic nitrogen of cytosine, respectively. Biochemical analyses indicate that the substrate preference of TET2 results from the different efficiencies of hydrogen abstraction in TET2-mediated oxidation. The restrained conformation of 5hmC and 5fC within the catalytic cavity may prevent their abstractable hydrogen(s) adopting a favourable orientation for hydrogen abstraction and thus result in low catalytic efficiency. Our studies demonstrate that the substrate preference of TET2 results from the intrinsic value of its substrates at their 5mC derivative groups and suggest that 5hmC is relatively stable and less prone to further oxidation by TET proteins. Therefore, TET proteins are evolutionarily tuned to be less reactive towards 5hmC and facilitate the generation of 5hmC as a potentially stable mark for regulatory functions.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hu, Lulu -- Lu, Junyan -- Cheng, Jingdong -- Rao, Qinhui -- Li, Ze -- Hou, Haifeng -- Lou, Zhiyong -- Zhang, Lei -- Li, Wei -- Gong, Wei -- Liu, Mengjie -- Sun, Chang -- Yin, Xiaotong -- Li, Jie -- Tan, Xiangshi -- Wang, Pengcheng -- Wang, Yinsheng -- Fang, Dong -- Cui, Qiang -- Yang, Pengyuan -- He, Chuan -- Jiang, Hualiang -- Luo, Cheng -- Xu, Yanhui -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Nov 5;527(7576):118-22. doi: 10.1038/nature15713. Epub 2015 Oct 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. ; Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Ministry of Education, Department of Systems Biology for Medicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China. ; State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center of Genetics and Development, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China. ; Drug Discovery and Design Center, State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China. ; Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. ; Laboratory of Structural Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; MOE Laboratory of Protein Science, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; Department of Chemistry, University of California-Riverside, Riverside, California 92521-0403, USA. ; Theoretical Chemistry Institute, Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA. ; Department of Chemistry and Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, 929 East 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The University of Chicago, 929 East 57th Street, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26524525" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 5-Methylcytosine/metabolism ; Biocatalysis ; Catalytic Domain ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Cytosine/analogs & derivatives/metabolism ; DNA/*chemistry/*metabolism ; DNA Methylation ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Humans ; Hydrogen Bonding ; Models, Molecular ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Protein Binding ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Substrate Specificity
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-05-15
    Description: A novel Ebola virus (EBOV) first identified in March 2014 has infected more than 25,000 people in West Africa, resulting in more than 10,000 deaths. Preliminary analyses of genome sequences of 81 EBOV collected from March to June 2014 from Guinea and Sierra Leone suggest that the 2014 EBOV originated from an independent transmission event from its natural reservoir followed by sustained human-to-human infections. It has been reported that the EBOV genome variation might have an effect on the efficacy of sequence-based virus detection and candidate therapeutics. However, only limited viral information has been available since July 2014, when the outbreak entered a rapid growth phase. Here we describe 175 full-length EBOV genome sequences from five severely stricken districts in Sierra Leone from 28 September to 11 November 2014. We found that the 2014 EBOV has become more phylogenetically and genetically diverse from July to November 2014, characterized by the emergence of multiple novel lineages. The substitution rate for the 2014 EBOV was estimated to be 1.23 x 10(-3) substitutions per site per year (95% highest posterior density interval, 1.04 x 10(-3) to 1.41 x 10(-3) substitutions per site per year), approximating to that observed between previous EBOV outbreaks. The sharp increase in genetic diversity of the 2014 EBOV warrants extensive EBOV surveillance in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia to better understand the viral evolution and transmission dynamics of the ongoing outbreak. These data will facilitate the international efforts to develop vaccines and therapeutics.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tong, Yi-Gang -- Shi, Wei-Feng -- Liu, Di -- Qian, Jun -- Liang, Long -- Bo, Xiao-Chen -- Liu, Jun -- Ren, Hong-Guang -- Fan, Hang -- Ni, Ming -- Sun, Yang -- Jin, Yuan -- Teng, Yue -- Li, Zhen -- Kargbo, David -- Dafae, Foday -- Kanu, Alex -- Chen, Cheng-Chao -- Lan, Zhi-Heng -- Jiang, Hui -- Luo, Yang -- Lu, Hui-Jun -- Zhang, Xiao-Guang -- Yang, Fan -- Hu, Yi -- Cao, Yu-Xi -- Deng, Yong-Qiang -- Su, Hao-Xiang -- Sun, Yu -- Liu, Wen-Sen -- Wang, Zhuang -- Wang, Cheng-Yu -- Bu, Zhao-Yang -- Guo, Zhen-Dong -- Zhang, Liu-Bo -- Nie, Wei-Min -- Bai, Chang-Qing -- Sun, Chun-Hua -- An, Xiao-Ping -- Xu, Pei-Song -- Zhang, Xiang-Li-Lan -- Huang, Yong -- Mi, Zhi-Qiang -- Yu, Dong -- Yao, Hong-Wu -- Feng, Yong -- Xia, Zhi-Ping -- Zheng, Xue-Xing -- Yang, Song-Tao -- Lu, Bing -- Jiang, Jia-Fu -- Kargbo, Brima -- He, Fu-Chu -- Gao, George F -- Cao, Wu-Chun -- China Mobile Laboratory Testing Team in Sierra Leone -- England -- Nature. 2015 Aug 6;524(7563):93-6. doi: 10.1038/nature14490. Epub 2015 May 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing 100071, China. ; Institute of Pathogen Biology, Taishan Medical College, Taian 271000, China. ; Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. ; Key Laboratory of Jilin Province for Zoonosis Prevention and Control, Changchun 130122, China. ; Beijing Key Laboratory of New Molecular Diagnostics Technology, Beijing 100850, China. ; Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China. ; Sierra Leone Ministry of Health and Sanitation, Freetown, Sierra Leone. ; Sierra Leone-China Friendship Hospital, Freetown, Sierra Leone. ; BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. ; Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences &Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100730, China. ; Institute of Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100021, China. ; The No. 302 Hospital, Beijing 100039, China. ; The No. 307 Hospital, Beijing 100071, China. ; Department of international cooperation, National Health and Family Planning Commission, Beijing 100044, China. ; State Key Laboratory of Proteomics, Beijing 102206, China. ; 1] Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China [2] Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China [3] Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25970247" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-02-27
    Description: RNA-binding proteins control many aspects of cellular biology through binding single-stranded RNA binding motifs (RBMs). However, RBMs can be buried within their local RNA structures, thus inhibiting RNA-protein interactions. N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A), the most abundant and dynamic internal modification in eukaryotic messenger RNA, can be selectively recognized by the YTHDF2 protein to affect the stability of cytoplasmic mRNAs, but how m(6)A achieves its wide-ranging physiological role needs further exploration. Here we show in human cells that m(6)A controls the RNA-structure-dependent accessibility of RBMs to affect RNA-protein interactions for biological regulation; we term this mechanism 'the m(6)A-switch'. We found that m(6)A alters the local structure in mRNA and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) to facilitate binding of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein C (HNRNPC), an abundant nuclear RNA-binding protein responsible for pre-mRNA processing. Combining photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP) and anti-m(6)A immunoprecipitation (MeRIP) approaches enabled us to identify 39,060 m(6)A-switches among HNRNPC-binding sites; and global m(6)A reduction decreased HNRNPC binding at 2,798 high-confidence m(6)A-switches. We determined that these m(6)A-switch-regulated HNRNPC-binding activities affect the abundance as well as alternative splicing of target mRNAs, demonstrating the regulatory role of m(6)A-switches on gene expression and RNA maturation. Our results illustrate how RNA-binding proteins gain regulated access to their RBMs through m(6)A-dependent RNA structural remodelling, and provide a new direction for investigating RNA-modification-coded cellular biology.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4355918/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4355918/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Liu, Nian -- Dai, Qing -- Zheng, Guanqun -- He, Chuan -- Parisien, Marc -- Pan, Tao -- GM088599/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- K01 HG006699/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- K01HG006699/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM088599/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000430/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Feb 26;518(7540):560-4. doi: 10.1038/nature14234.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; 1] Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA [2] Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA [3] Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA [4] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; 1] Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA [2] Institute for Biophysical Dynamics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25719671" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine/*analogs & derivatives/metabolism ; Alternative Splicing/genetics ; Base Sequence ; Cross-Linking Reagents ; HEK293 Cells ; HeLa Cells ; Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group C/*metabolism ; Humans ; Immunoprecipitation ; *Nucleic Acid Conformation ; Nucleotide Motifs ; Protein Binding ; RNA, Messenger/analysis/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Transcriptome
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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