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  • Articles  (16)
  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)  (9)
  • Institute of Physics (IOP)  (7)
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  • Articles  (16)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-11-30
    Description: Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a globally important crop, accounting for 20 per cent of the calories consumed by humans. Major efforts are underway worldwide to increase wheat production by extending genetic diversity and analysing key traits, and genomic resources can accelerate progress. But so far the very large size and polyploid complexity of the bread wheat genome have been substantial barriers to genome analysis. Here we report the sequencing of its large, 17-gigabase-pair, hexaploid genome using 454 pyrosequencing, and comparison of this with the sequences of diploid ancestral and progenitor genomes. We identified between 94,000 and 96,000 genes, and assigned two-thirds to the three component genomes (A, B and D) of hexaploid wheat. High-resolution synteny maps identified many small disruptions to conserved gene order. We show that the hexaploid genome is highly dynamic, with significant loss of gene family members on polyploidization and domestication, and an abundance of gene fragments. Several classes of genes involved in energy harvesting, metabolism and growth are among expanded gene families that could be associated with crop productivity. Our analyses, coupled with the identification of extensive genetic variation, provide a resource for accelerating gene discovery and improving this major crop.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3510651/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3510651/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brenchley, Rachel -- Spannagl, Manuel -- Pfeifer, Matthias -- Barker, Gary L A -- D'Amore, Rosalinda -- Allen, Alexandra M -- McKenzie, Neil -- Kramer, Melissa -- Kerhornou, Arnaud -- Bolser, Dan -- Kay, Suzanne -- Waite, Darren -- Trick, Martin -- Bancroft, Ian -- Gu, Yong -- Huo, Naxin -- Luo, Ming-Cheng -- Sehgal, Sunish -- Gill, Bikram -- Kianian, Sharyar -- Anderson, Olin -- Kersey, Paul -- Dvorak, Jan -- McCombie, W Richard -- Hall, Anthony -- Mayer, Klaus F X -- Edwards, Keith J -- Bevan, Michael W -- Hall, Neil -- B/J004588/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/E004725/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/G012865/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/G013004/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/G013985/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/G024650/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- BB/H022333/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0900753/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0900753(91100)/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2012 Nov 29;491(7426):705-10. doi: 10.1038/nature11650.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for Genome Research, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23192148" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Brachypodium/genetics ; *Bread ; Chromosomes, Plant/genetics ; Crops, Agricultural/genetics ; DNA, Complementary/genetics ; DNA, Plant/genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; Genes, Plant/genetics ; Genome, Plant/*genetics ; Genomics ; Multigene Family/genetics ; Oryza/genetics ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics ; Polyploidy ; Pseudogenes/genetics ; Sequence Alignment ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Triticum/classification/*genetics ; Zea mays/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-04-19
    Description: Zebrafish have become a popular organism for the study of vertebrate gene function. The virtually transparent embryos of this species, and the ability to accelerate genetic studies by gene knockdown or overexpression, have led to the widespread use of zebrafish in the detailed investigation of vertebrate gene function and increasingly, the study of human genetic disease. However, for effective modelling of human genetic disease it is important to understand the extent to which zebrafish genes and gene structures are related to orthologous human genes. To examine this, we generated a high-quality sequence assembly of the zebrafish genome, made up of an overlapping set of completely sequenced large-insert clones that were ordered and oriented using a high-resolution high-density meiotic map. Detailed automatic and manual annotation provides evidence of more than 26,000 protein-coding genes, the largest gene set of any vertebrate so far sequenced. Comparison to the human reference genome shows that approximately 70% of human genes have at least one obvious zebrafish orthologue. In addition, the high quality of this genome assembly provides a clearer understanding of key genomic features such as a unique repeat content, a scarcity of pseudogenes, an enrichment of zebrafish-specific genes on chromosome 4 and chromosomal regions that influence sex determination.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3703927/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3703927/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Howe, Kerstin -- Clark, Matthew D -- Torroja, Carlos F -- Torrance, James -- Berthelot, Camille -- Muffato, Matthieu -- Collins, John E -- Humphray, Sean -- McLaren, Karen -- Matthews, Lucy -- McLaren, Stuart -- Sealy, Ian -- Caccamo, Mario -- Churcher, Carol -- Scott, Carol -- Barrett, Jeffrey C -- Koch, Romke -- Rauch, Gerd-Jorg -- White, Simon -- Chow, William -- Kilian, Britt -- Quintais, Leonor T -- Guerra-Assuncao, Jose A -- Zhou, Yi -- Gu, Yong -- Yen, Jennifer -- Vogel, Jan-Hinnerk -- Eyre, Tina -- Redmond, Seth -- Banerjee, Ruby -- Chi, Jianxiang -- Fu, Beiyuan -- Langley, Elizabeth -- Maguire, Sean F -- Laird, Gavin K -- Lloyd, David -- Kenyon, Emma -- Donaldson, Sarah -- Sehra, Harminder -- Almeida-King, Jeff -- Loveland, Jane -- Trevanion, Stephen -- Jones, Matt -- Quail, Mike -- Willey, Dave -- Hunt, Adrienne -- Burton, John -- Sims, Sarah -- McLay, Kirsten -- Plumb, Bob -- Davis, Joy -- Clee, Chris -- Oliver, Karen -- Clark, Richard -- Riddle, Clare -- Elliot, David -- Threadgold, Glen -- Harden, Glenn -- Ware, Darren -- Begum, Sharmin -- Mortimore, Beverley -- Kerry, Giselle -- Heath, Paul -- Phillimore, Benjamin -- Tracey, Alan -- Corby, Nicole -- Dunn, Matthew -- Johnson, Christopher -- Wood, Jonathan -- Clark, Susan -- Pelan, Sarah -- Griffiths, Guy -- Smith, Michelle -- Glithero, Rebecca -- Howden, Philip -- Barker, Nicholas -- Lloyd, Christine -- Stevens, Christopher -- Harley, Joanna -- Holt, Karen -- Panagiotidis, Georgios -- Lovell, Jamieson -- Beasley, Helen -- Henderson, Carl -- Gordon, Daria -- Auger, Katherine -- Wright, Deborah -- Collins, Joanna -- Raisen, Claire -- Dyer, Lauren -- Leung, Kenric -- Robertson, Lauren -- Ambridge, Kirsty -- Leongamornlert, Daniel -- McGuire, Sarah -- Gilderthorp, Ruth -- Griffiths, Coline -- Manthravadi, Deepa -- Nichol, Sarah -- Barker, Gary -- Whitehead, Siobhan -- Kay, Michael -- Brown, Jacqueline -- Murnane, Clare -- Gray, Emma -- Humphries, Matthew -- Sycamore, Neil -- Barker, Darren -- Saunders, David -- Wallis, Justene -- Babbage, Anne -- Hammond, Sian -- Mashreghi-Mohammadi, Maryam -- Barr, Lucy -- Martin, Sancha -- Wray, Paul -- Ellington, Andrew -- Matthews, Nicholas -- Ellwood, Matthew -- Woodmansey, Rebecca -- Clark, Graham -- Cooper, James D -- Tromans, Anthony -- Grafham, Darren -- Skuce, Carl -- Pandian, Richard -- Andrews, Robert -- Harrison, Elliot -- Kimberley, Andrew -- Garnett, Jane -- Fosker, Nigel -- Hall, Rebekah -- Garner, Patrick -- Kelly, Daniel -- Bird, Christine -- Palmer, Sophie -- Gehring, Ines -- Berger, Andrea -- Dooley, Christopher M -- Ersan-Urun, Zubeyde -- Eser, Cigdem -- Geiger, Horst -- Geisler, Maria -- Karotki, Lena -- Kirn, Anette -- Konantz, Judith -- Konantz, Martina -- Oberlander, Martina -- Rudolph-Geiger, Silke -- Teucke, Mathias -- Lanz, Christa -- Raddatz, Gunter -- Osoegawa, Kazutoyo -- Zhu, Baoli -- Rapp, Amanda -- Widaa, Sara -- Langford, Cordelia -- Yang, Fengtang -- Schuster, Stephan C -- Carter, Nigel P -- Harrow, Jennifer -- Ning, Zemin -- Herrero, Javier -- Searle, Steve M J -- Enright, Anton -- Geisler, Robert -- Plasterk, Ronald H A -- Lee, Charles -- Westerfield, Monte -- de Jong, Pieter J -- Zon, Leonard I -- Postlethwait, John H -- Nusslein-Volhard, Christiane -- Hubbard, Tim J P -- Roest Crollius, Hugues -- Rogers, Jane -- Stemple, Derek L -- 095908/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1 R01 DK55377-01A1/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P01 HD022486/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P01 HD22486/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM085318/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 OD011116/OD/NIH HHS/ -- R01 RR010715/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 RR020833/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Apr 25;496(7446):498-503. doi: 10.1038/nature12111. Epub 2013 Apr 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23594743" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chromosomes/genetics ; Conserved Sequence/*genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Genes/genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; Genome, Human/genetics ; Genomics ; Humans ; Male ; Meiosis/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Pseudogenes/genetics ; Reference Standards ; Sex Determination Processes/genetics ; Zebrafish/*genetics ; Zebrafish Proteins/genetics
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-11-08
    Description: To obtain the intuitive data of magic field changes with nonwoven metal shielding material, the Al / PET / Rayon needle punched webs was processed with varied parameters, which were position of Al film, mass proportion of Al, needle punched density, and needle punched depth. Magnetic flux density values of Al / PET / Rayon needle punched webs were measured to calculate their magnetic flux density attenuation (MFDA) values under the exposure to mobile phone field. It was found that position of Al film, Al proportion, and needle punched density have a great effect on magnetic flux density attenuation. When Al proportion in needle punched web increases from 10% to 18%, MFDA values increase accordingly, and tend to converge around Al mass ratio 18%. Besides, the promotion range of MFDA values is particularly obvious in the case of needle punched density 50 g m −2 . When needle punched density increases from 50 g m −2 to 150 g m −2 , MFDA values decrease o...
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2009-07-17
    Description: Schistosoma mansoni is responsible for the neglected tropical disease schistosomiasis that affects 210 million people in 76 countries. Here we present analysis of the 363 megabase nuclear genome of the blood fluke. It encodes at least 11,809 genes, with an unusual intron size distribution, and new families of micro-exon genes that undergo frequent alternative splicing. As the first sequenced flatworm, and a representative of the Lophotrochozoa, it offers insights into early events in the evolution of the animals, including the development of a body pattern with bilateral symmetry, and the development of tissues into organs. Our analysis has been informed by the need to find new drug targets. The deficits in lipid metabolism that make schistosomes dependent on the host are revealed, and the identification of membrane receptors, ion channels and more than 300 proteases provide new insights into the biology of the life cycle and new targets. Bioinformatics approaches have identified metabolic chokepoints, and a chemogenomic screen has pinpointed schistosome proteins for which existing drugs may be active. The information generated provides an invaluable resource for the research community to develop much needed new control tools for the treatment and eradication of this important and neglected disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2756445/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2756445/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Berriman, Matthew -- Haas, Brian J -- LoVerde, Philip T -- Wilson, R Alan -- Dillon, Gary P -- Cerqueira, Gustavo C -- Mashiyama, Susan T -- Al-Lazikani, Bissan -- Andrade, Luiza F -- Ashton, Peter D -- Aslett, Martin A -- Bartholomeu, Daniella C -- Blandin, Gaelle -- Caffrey, Conor R -- Coghlan, Avril -- Coulson, Richard -- Day, Tim A -- Delcher, Art -- DeMarco, Ricardo -- Djikeng, Appolinaire -- Eyre, Tina -- Gamble, John A -- Ghedin, Elodie -- Gu, Yong -- Hertz-Fowler, Christiane -- Hirai, Hirohisha -- Hirai, Yuriko -- Houston, Robin -- Ivens, Alasdair -- Johnston, David A -- Lacerda, Daniela -- Macedo, Camila D -- McVeigh, Paul -- Ning, Zemin -- Oliveira, Guilherme -- Overington, John P -- Parkhill, Julian -- Pertea, Mihaela -- Pierce, Raymond J -- Protasio, Anna V -- Quail, Michael A -- Rajandream, Marie-Adele -- Rogers, Jane -- Sajid, Mohammed -- Salzberg, Steven L -- Stanke, Mario -- Tivey, Adrian R -- White, Owen -- Williams, David L -- Wortman, Jennifer -- Wu, Wenjie -- Zamanian, Mostafa -- Zerlotini, Adhemar -- Fraser-Liggett, Claire M -- Barrell, Barclay G -- El-Sayed, Najib M -- 086151/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 5D43TW006580/TW/FIC NIH HHS/ -- 5D43TW007012-03/TW/FIC NIH HHS/ -- AI054711-01A2/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI48828/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM083873/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM083873-07/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM083873-08/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 LM006845/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- R01 LM006845-08/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- R01 LM006845-09/LM/NLM NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI048828/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI048828-01/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 AI048828-02/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- WT085775/Z/08/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2009 Jul 16;460(7253):352-8. doi: 10.1038/nature08160.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. mb4@sanger.ac.uk〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19606141" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biological Evolution ; Exons/genetics ; Genes, Helminth/genetics ; Genome, Helminth/*genetics ; Host-Parasite Interactions/genetics ; Introns/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Physical Chromosome Mapping ; Schistosoma mansoni/drug effects/embryology/*genetics/physiology ; Schistosomiasis mansoni/drug therapy/parasitology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2012-03-09
    Description: Gorillas are humans' closest living relatives after chimpanzees, and are of comparable importance for the study of human origins and evolution. Here we present the assembly and analysis of a genome sequence for the western lowland gorilla, and compare the whole genomes of all extant great ape genera. We propose a synthesis of genetic and fossil evidence consistent with placing the human-chimpanzee and human-chimpanzee-gorilla speciation events at approximately 6 and 10 million years ago. In 30% of the genome, gorilla is closer to human or chimpanzee than the latter are to each other; this is rarer around coding genes, indicating pervasive selection throughout great ape evolution, and has functional consequences in gene expression. A comparison of protein coding genes reveals approximately 500 genes showing accelerated evolution on each of the gorilla, human and chimpanzee lineages, and evidence for parallel acceleration, particularly of genes involved in hearing. We also compare the western and eastern gorilla species, estimating an average sequence divergence time 1.75 million years ago, but with evidence for more recent genetic exchange and a population bottleneck in the eastern species. The use of the genome sequence in these and future analyses will promote a deeper understanding of great ape biology and evolution.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3303130/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3303130/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Scally, Aylwyn -- Dutheil, Julien Y -- Hillier, LaDeana W -- Jordan, Gregory E -- Goodhead, Ian -- Herrero, Javier -- Hobolth, Asger -- Lappalainen, Tuuli -- Mailund, Thomas -- Marques-Bonet, Tomas -- McCarthy, Shane -- Montgomery, Stephen H -- Schwalie, Petra C -- Tang, Y Amy -- Ward, Michelle C -- Xue, Yali -- Yngvadottir, Bryndis -- Alkan, Can -- Andersen, Lars N -- Ayub, Qasim -- Ball, Edward V -- Beal, Kathryn -- Bradley, Brenda J -- Chen, Yuan -- Clee, Chris M -- Fitzgerald, Stephen -- Graves, Tina A -- Gu, Yong -- Heath, Paul -- Heger, Andreas -- Karakoc, Emre -- Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja -- Laird, Gavin K -- Lunter, Gerton -- Meader, Stephen -- Mort, Matthew -- Mullikin, James C -- Munch, Kasper -- O'Connor, Timothy D -- Phillips, Andrew D -- Prado-Martinez, Javier -- Rogers, Anthony S -- Sajjadian, Saba -- Schmidt, Dominic -- Shaw, Katy -- Simpson, Jared T -- Stenson, Peter D -- Turner, Daniel J -- Vigilant, Linda -- Vilella, Albert J -- Whitener, Weldon -- Zhu, Baoli -- Cooper, David N -- de Jong, Pieter -- Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T -- Eichler, Evan E -- Flicek, Paul -- Goldman, Nick -- Mundy, Nicholas I -- Ning, Zemin -- Odom, Duncan T -- Ponting, Chris P -- Quail, Michael A -- Ryder, Oliver A -- Searle, Stephen M -- Warren, Wesley C -- Wilson, Richard K -- Schierup, Mikkel H -- Rogers, Jane -- Tyler-Smith, Chris -- Durbin, Richard -- 062023/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 075491/Z/04/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077009/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077192/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 077198/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 089066/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 090532/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 095908/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 15603/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- 202218/European Research Council/International -- A15603/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- G0501331/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- G0701805/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- HG002385/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003079/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- WT062023/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT077009/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT077192/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT077198/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- WT089066/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Mar 7;483(7388):169-75. doi: 10.1038/nature10842.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22398555" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation ; *Genetic Speciation ; Genetic Variation/genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; Genomics ; Gorilla gorilla/*genetics ; Humans ; Macaca mulatta/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Pan troglodytes/genetics ; Phylogeny ; Pongo/genetics ; Proteins/genetics ; Sequence Alignment ; Species Specificity ; Transcription, Genetic
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-07-06
    Description: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is essential for most Gram-negative bacteria and has crucial roles in protection of the bacteria from harsh environments and toxic compounds, including antibiotics. Seven LPS transport proteins (that is, LptA-LptG) form a trans-envelope protein complex responsible for the transport of LPS from the inner membrane to the outer membrane, the mechanism for which is poorly understood. Here we report the first crystal structure of the unique integral membrane LPS translocon LptD-LptE complex. LptD forms a novel 26-stranded beta-barrel, which is to our knowledge the largest beta-barrel reported so far. LptE adopts a roll-like structure located inside the barrel of LptD to form an unprecedented two-protein 'barrel and plug' architecture. The structure, molecular dynamics simulations and functional assays suggest that the hydrophilic O-antigen and the core oligosaccharide of the LPS may pass through the barrel and the lipid A of the LPS may be inserted into the outer leaflet of the outer membrane through a lateral opening between strands beta1 and beta26 of LptD. These findings not only help us to understand important aspects of bacterial outer membrane biogenesis, but also have significant potential for the development of novel drugs against multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dong, Haohao -- Xiang, Quanju -- Gu, Yinghong -- Wang, Zhongshan -- Paterson, Neil G -- Stansfeld, Phillip J -- He, Chuan -- Zhang, Yizheng -- Wang, Wenjian -- Dong, Changjiang -- 083501/Z/07/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2014 Jul 3;511(7507):52-6. doi: 10.1038/nature13464. Epub 2014 Jun 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Biomedical Research Centre, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK [2] Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, School of Chemistry, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9ST, UK. ; 1] Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, School of Chemistry, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9ST, UK [2] Department of Microbiology, College of Resource and Environment Science, Sichuan Agriculture University, Yaan 625000, China. ; Biomedical Research Centre, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK. ; 1] Biomedical Research Centre, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK [2] Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, School of Chemistry, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9ST, UK [3] College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China. ; Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE, UK. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK. ; 1] Biomedical Sciences Research Complex, School of Chemistry, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9ST, UK [2] School of Electronics and Information, Wuhan Technical College of Communications, No.6 Huangjiahu West Road, Hongshan District, Wuhan, Hubei 430065, China. ; College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China. ; Laboratory of Department of Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 58 Zhongshan Road II, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510080, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24990744" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Cell Membrane/chemistry/metabolism ; Cell Wall/chemistry/metabolism ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Lipopolysaccharides/chemistry/*metabolism ; Models, Molecular ; Multiprotein Complexes/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Salmonella typhimurium/*chemistry/cytology ; Structure-Activity Relationship
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-08-20
    Description: Epigenetic modifiers have fundamental roles in defining unique cellular identity through the establishment and maintenance of lineage-specific chromatin and methylation status. Several DNA modifications such as 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) are catalysed by the ten eleven translocation (Tet) methylcytosine dioxygenase family members, and the roles of Tet proteins in regulating chromatin architecture and gene transcription independently of DNA methylation have been gradually uncovered. However, the regulation of immunity and inflammation by Tet proteins independent of their role in modulating DNA methylation remains largely unknown. Here we show that Tet2 selectively mediates active repression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) transcription during inflammation resolution in innate myeloid cells, including dendritic cells and macrophages. Loss of Tet2 resulted in the upregulation of several inflammatory mediators, including IL-6, at late phase during the response to lipopolysaccharide challenge. Tet2-deficient mice were more susceptible to endotoxin shock and dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced colitis, displaying a more severe inflammatory phenotype and increased IL-6 production compared to wild-type mice. IkappaBzeta, an IL-6-specific transcription factor, mediated specific targeting of Tet2 to the Il6 promoter, further indicating opposite regulatory roles of IkappaBzeta at initial and resolution phases of inflammation. For the repression mechanism, independent of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation, Tet2 recruited Hdac2 and repressed transcription of Il6 via histone deacetylation. We provide mechanistic evidence for the gene-specific transcription repression activity of Tet2 via histone deacetylation and for the prevention of constant transcription activation at the chromatin level for resolving inflammation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4697747/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4697747/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Qian -- Zhao, Kai -- Shen, Qicong -- Han, Yanmei -- Gu, Yan -- Li, Xia -- Zhao, Dezhi -- Liu, Yiqi -- Wang, Chunmei -- Zhang, Xiang -- Su, Xiaoping -- Liu, Juan -- Ge, Wei -- Levine, Ross L -- Li, Nan -- Cao, Xuetao -- P30 CA008748/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA173636/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 17;525(7569):389-93. doi: 10.1038/nature15252. Epub 2015 Aug 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology &Department of Immunology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100005, China. ; National Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology &Institute of Immunology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China. ; Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program and Leukemia Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer, New York, New York 10016, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26287468" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Animals ; Chromatin/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Colitis/enzymology/immunology/metabolism ; DNA Methylation ; DNA-Binding Proteins/deficiency/*metabolism ; Dendritic Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Down-Regulation/genetics ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Female ; HEK293 Cells ; Histone Deacetylase 2/*metabolism ; Histones/chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; I-kappa B Proteins/metabolism ; Inflammation/enzymology/immunology/*metabolism ; Interleukin-6/*antagonists & inhibitors/*biosynthesis/genetics/immunology ; Macrophages/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/deficiency/*metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-24
    Description: Gutta-percha is the isomer of caoutchouc and can be used to enhance the performance of asphalt. In this paper, the produce proceedings of gutta-percha sulfide and gutta-percha sulfide modified asphalt are introduced. The performance indices of gutta-percha sulfide modified asphalt samples with different proportions are examined based on laboratory tests and the optimum ratio of gutta-percha and sulfur is decided.The micromechanism, temperature sensitivity, high and low temperature properties and viscoelasticity of the polymer modified asphalt are analyzed to discuss the modified mechanism and to decide the optimal polymer content. Low temperature bending tests are carried out to verify the low temperature performance of gutta-percha sulfide modified asphalt mixture. Research results showed that gutta-percha sulfide modified asphalt has good low temperature performance and a promising application prospect in the cold regions.
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-07-28
    Description: China has experienced considerable economic losses from a severe deterioration in air quality. To solve this, a comprehensive understanding of the impacts and sources of air pollution is necessary. This study aimed to quantify the environmental and human health impacts of PM 2.5 and O 3 pollution from the six major emission-producing sectors in China. We utilized a chemical transport model to simulate the air quality impacts engendered by sectoral emissions. The consequent impacts on public health and crop production, as well as the corresponding collateral economic costs, were quantified by concentration-response functions. The results show that the sectoral emissions in 2010 caused approximately 1 143 000 (95% confidence interval (CI): 168 000–1 796 000) premature mortalities and a 20 035 (95% CI: 6776–32 166) Gg crop production loss. Of the six sectors, the industrial sector was the largest contributor of air pollution, accounting for 36% of the total impa...
    Print ISSN: 1748-9318
    Electronic ISSN: 1748-9326
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-11-22
    Description: Nowadays, with the development of high resolution remote sensing image and the wide application of laser point cloud data, proceeding objected-oriented remote sensing classification based on the characteristic knowledge of multi-source spatial data has been an important trend on the field of remote sensing image classification, which gradually replaced the traditional method through improving algorithm to optimize image classification results. For this purpose, the paper puts forward a remote sensing image classification method that uses the he characteristic knowledge of multi-source spatial data to build the geographic ontology semantic network model, and carries out the objected-oriented classification experiment to implement urban features classification, the experiment uses protégé software which is developed by Stanford University in the United States, and intelligent image analysis software—eCognition software as the experiment platform, uses hyperspectral image and Lidar...
    Print ISSN: 1755-1307
    Electronic ISSN: 1755-1315
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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