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  • National Academy of Sciences  (1)
  • Wiley-Blackwell  (1)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-03-16
    Description: Individuals with 22q11.2 microdeletions have cognitive and behavioral impairments and the highest known genetic risk for developing schizophrenia. One gene disrupted by the 22q11.2 microdeletion is DGCR8, a component of the “microprocessor” complex that is essential for microRNA production, resulting in abnormal processing of specific brain miRNAs and working memory deficits. Here, we determine the effect of Dgcr8 deficiency on the structure and function of cortical circuits by assessing their laminar organization, as well as the neuronal morphology, and intrinsic and synaptic properties of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex of Dgcr8+/− mutant mice. We found that heterozygous Dgcr8 mutant mice have slightly fewer cortical layer 2/4 neurons and that the basal dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons have slightly smaller spines. In addition to the modest structural changes, field potential and whole-cell electrophysiological recordings performed in layer 5 of the prefrontal cortex revealed greater short-term synaptic depression during brief stimulation trains applied at 50 Hz to superficial cortical layers. This finding was accompanied by a decrease in the initial phase of synaptic potentiation. Our results identify altered short-term plasticity as a neural substrate underlying the cognitive dysfunction and the increased risk for schizophrenia associated with the 22q11.2 microdeletions.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Electrical properties, such as dissipation factor and electric conductivity, were studied for silicone rubber sheets. The specimens were prepared by the reaction of α,ω-dihydroxypolysiloxane with ethoxysilane, using dibutyltin dilaurate as a catalyst, at a relative humidity of about 100% at various temperatures and for various reaction times. It was found that the electrical properties were a function of the vulcanizing conditions; i.e., the further the vulcanization proceeded, the higher the dissipation factor and the electric conductivity. A reaction describing deterioration in electrical properties was then considered. Infrared spectroscopic studies on dibutyltin dilaurate showed that the dibutyltin dilaurates were partly hydrolyzed to lauric acid and dibutyltin dihydroxide. It was concluded that electrical property deteriorations, which were caused by changes in the vulcanizing conditions, were due to dibutyltin dilaurate hydrolysis. However, since the decomposed products were finally oxidized at elevated temperatures in an oxygen atmosphere, with a subsequent change to electrically inactive compounds, the initial electrical properties were recovered.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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