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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-02-16
    Description: The Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) signaling pathway controls multiple events during development and homeostasis. It comprises multiple branches, mainly classified according to their dependence on β-catenin activation. The Wnt/β-catenin branch is essential for the establishment of the embryonic anteroposterior (AP) body axis throughout the phylogenetic tree. It is also required for AP axis establishment during planarian regeneration. Wnt/β-catenin–independent signaling encompasses several different pathways, of which the most extensively studied is the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, which is responsible for planar polarization of cell structures within an epithelial sheet. Dishevelled (Dvl) is the hub of Wnt signaling because it regulates and channels the Wnt signal into every branch. Here, we analyze the role of Schmidtea mediterranea Dvl homologs (Smed-dvl-1 and Smed-dvl-2) using gene silencing. We demonstrate that in addition to a role in AP axis specification, planarian Dvls are involved in at least two different β-catenin–independent processes. First, they are essential for neural connectivity through Smed-wnt5 signaling. Second, Smed-dvl-2, together with the S. mediterranea homologs of Van-Gogh (Vang) and Diversin (Div), is required for apical positioning of the basal bodies of epithelial cells. These data represent evidence not only of the function of the PCP network in lophotrocozoans but of the involvement of the PCP core elements Vang and Div in apical positioning of the cilia.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-06-28
    Description: Sea-level rise (SLR) is one of the most conspicuous examples of the environmental impact of recent climate change. Since SLR rates are not uniform around the planet, local and regional data are needed for proper adaptation plans. 210 Pb-dated sediment cores were analyzed to determine the trends of sediment accretion rates (SARs) at three tropical saltmarshes in the Estero de Urias lagoon (Gulf of California, Mexico), in order to estimate the SLR trends during the past ~100 years, under the assumption that these ecosystems accrete at a similar rate to SLR. A chemometric approach, including multivariate statistical analysis (factor analysis) of geochemical data (including 13 C; 15 N; C/N ratios; and Br, Na, and Cl as proxies for marine transgression) was used to identify the marine transgression in the sediment records. Based on core geochemistry, only one of the three cores provided a long-term record attributable to marine transgression. SLR trends, estimated from SARs, showed increasing values, from a minimum of 0.73 ± 0.03 mm yr –1 at the beginning of the 20th century and up to 3.87 ± 0.12 mm yr –1 during the period 1990–2012. The estimated SLR trend between 1950 and 1970 was comparable to the tide gauge records in Mazatlan City for the same period. Results showed the caveats and strengths of this methodology to reconstruct decadal SLR trends from the sedimentary record, which can be used to estimate long-term SLR trends worldwide in regions where monitoring data are scarce or absent.
    Print ISSN: 0959-6836
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-0911
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Sage
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