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  • Articles  (4)
  • Mineralogical Society of America  (2)
  • Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-07-01
    Description: Manganoquadratite, ideally AgMnAsS3, is a new mineral from the Uchucchacua polymetallic deposit, Oyon district, Catajambo, Lima Department, Peru. It occurs as dark gray, anhedral to subhedral grains up 0.5 mm across, closely associated with alabandite, Mn-rich calcite, Mn-rich sphalerite, proustite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, tennantite, argentotennantite, stannite, and other unnamed minerals of the system Pb-Ag-Sb-Mn-As-S. Manganoquadratite is opaque with a metallic luster and possesses a reddish-brown streak. It is brittle, the Vickers microhardness (VHN10) is 81 kg/mm2 (range 75–96) (corresponding Mohs hardness of 2–2½). The calculated density is 4.680 g/cm3 (on the basis of the empirical formula). In plane-polarized reflected light, manganoquadratite is moderately bireflectant and very weakly pleochroic from dark gray to a blue gray. Internal reflections are absent. Between crossed polars, the mineral is anisotropic, without characteristic rotation tints. Reflectance percentages (Rmin and Rmax) for the four standard COM wavelengths are 29.5, 31.8 (471.1 nm), 28.1, 30.5 (548.3 nm), 27.3, 29.3 (586.6 nm), and 26.0, 28.2 (652.3 nm), respectively.Manganoquadratite is tetragonal, space group P4322, with unit-cell parameters: a = 5.4496(5), c = 32.949(1) Å, V = 978.5(1) Å3, c:a = 6.046, Z = 8. The structure, refined to R1 = 0.0863 for 907 reflections with Fo 〉 4σ(Fo), consists of a stacking along [001] of alabandite-like Mn2S2 layers connected to each to other by a couple of AgAsS2 sheets where As3+ forms typical AsS3 groups, whereas Ag+ cations are fivefold coordinated. The six strongest lines in the observed X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in Å (I/I0) (hkl)] are: 3.14 (60) (116), 2.739 (50) (0 0 12), 2.710 (100) (200), 1.927(70) (2 0 12 + 220), 1.645 (25) (3 0 16), and 1.573 (20) (22 12).Electron microprobe analyses gave the chemical formula (on the basis of six atoms) (Ag0.95Cu0.05)∑=1.00 (Mn0.96Pb0.04)∑=1.00(As0.87Sb0.14)∑=1.01S2.99, leading to the simplified formula AgMnAsS3.The name was chosen to indicate the close analogy of the formula and unit-cell dimensions with quadratite, Ag(Cd,Pb)(As,Sb)S3. The new mineral and mineral name have been approved by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification, IMA 2011-008.
    Print ISSN: 0003-004X
    Electronic ISSN: 1945-3027
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-02-01
    Description: Menchettiite, ideally AgPb2.40Mn1.60Sb3As2S12, is a new mineral from the Uchucchacua polymetallic deposit, Oyon district, Catajambo, Lima Department, Peru. It occurs as black, anhedral to subhedral grains up to 200 µm across, closely associated with orpiment, tennantite/tetrahedrite, other unnamed minerals of the system Pb-Ag-Sb-Mn-As-S, and calcite. Menchettiite is opaque with a metallic luster and possesses a black streak. It is brittle, with uneven fracture; the Vickers microhardness (VHN100) is 128 kg/mm2 (range 119–136) (corresponding to a Mohs hardness of 2½–3). The calculated density is 5.146 g/cm3 (on the basis of the empirical formula). In plane-polarized incident light, menchettiite is weakly to moderately bireflectant and weakly pleochroic from dark gray to a dark green. Internal reflections are absent. Between crossed polarizers, the mineral is anisotropic, without characteristic rotation tints. Reflectance percentages (Rmin and Rmax) for the four standard COM wavelengths are 33.1, 39.8 (471.1 nm), 31.8, 38.0 (548.3 nm), 30.9, 37.3 (586.6 nm), and 29.0, 35.8 (652.3 nm), respectively.Menchettiite is monoclinic, space group P21/n, with unit-cell parameters: a = 19.233(2), b = 12.633(3), c = 8.476(2) Å, ß = 90.08(2)°, V = 2059.4(8) Å3, a: b: c 1.522:1:0.671, Z = 2, and it is twinned on {100}. The crystal structure was refined to R = 0.0903 for 2365 reflections with Fo 〉 4s(Fo) and it resulted to be topologically identical to those of ramdohrite, uchucchacuaite, and fizélyite. The six strongest X-ray powder-diffraction lines [d in Å (I/I0) (hkl)] are: 3.4066 (39) (3¯12), 3.4025 (39) (312), 3.2853 (100) (520), 2.8535 (50) (2¯32), 2.8519 (47) (232), and 2.1190 (33) (004). Electron-microprobe analyses gave the chemical formula Ag1.95Cu0.01Pb4.81Mn3.20Fe0.02Zn0.01Sb6.09As3.94Bi0.01S23.95Se0.01, on the basis of 44 atoms and according to the structure refinement results. Menchettiite can be classified among the Sb-rich members of the lillianite homeotypic series, which are described with the general formula AgxPb3-2xSb2+xS6. Besides the heterovalent substitution 2Pb2+ ? Ag+ + Sb3+ taken into consideration by the above formula, two isovalent substitutions relate menchettiite to the other lillianite homeotypes, i.e., Mn2+ ? Pb2+ and As3+ ? Sb3+. The name is after Silvio Menchetti (1937–), Professor of Mineralogy and Crystallography at the University of Florence. The new mineral and mineral name have been approved by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification, IMA (2011–009).
    Print ISSN: 0003-004X
    Electronic ISSN: 1945-3027
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 3
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-23
    Description: This paper considers the quantitative role of growth in the size of the social security program in contributing to the collapse of personal saving in the U.S. over the last few decades. Using a calibrated, general equilibrium life-cycle model this paper shows that social security may not be to blame. Specifically, the model predicts that a 50-percent increase in the social security tax rate (as in the U.S. over the last half century) produces a modest decline in the personal saving rate from 10 percent down to 9.6 percent. This result runs counter to some popular opinion.
    Keywords: E21 ; D91 ; H55 ; ddc:330 ; NIPA personal saving rate ; social security ; life-cycle permanent-income model ; general equilibrium calibration ; Sozialversicherungsbeitrag ; Sparen ; Einkommenshypothese ; Allgemeines Gleichgewicht
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2015-05-22
    Description: Hyperbolic discounting with naiveté is widely believed to provide a better explanation than exponential discounting of why people borrow so much and why they wait so long to save for retirement. We reach a different set of conclusions. We show that if financial planning is enriched to include the choice of when to retire, then naïve hyperbolic discounters may borrow far less and start saving for retirement significantly earlier than exponential discounters.
    Keywords: C61 ; D03 ; D91 ; ddc:330 ; hyperbolic discounting ; naiveté ; retirement choice ; time inconsistency ; life-cycle consumption and saving
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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