There is an urgent need to fulfill future energy demands for micro and nanoelectronics. This work outlines a number of important design features for carbon-based microsupercapacitors, which enhance both their performance and integration potential and are critical for complimentary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatibility. Based on these design features, we present CMOS-compatible, graphene-based microsupercapacitors that can be integrated at the back end of the line of the integrated circuit fabrication. Electrode materials and their interfaces play a crucial role for the device characteristics. As such, different carbon-based materials are discussed and the importance of careful design of current collector/electrode interfaces is emphasized. Electrode adhesion is an important factor to improve device performance and uniformity. Additionally, doping of the electrodes can greatly improve the energy density of the devices. As microsupercapacitors are engineered for targeted applications, device scaling is critically important, and we present the first steps toward general scaling trends. Last, we outline a potential future integration scheme for a complete microsystem on a chip, containing sensors, logic, power generation, power management, and power storage. Such a system would be self-powering.
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology