Dolomite occurs in a wide range of rock compositions, from peridotites to mafic eclogites and metasediments, up to mantle depths of more than 200 km. At low-temperatures dolomite is ordered ( R ), but transforms with increasing temperature into a disordered higher symmetry structure ( R c ). To understand the thermodynamics of dolomite, we have investigated temperature, pressure, kinetics, and compositional dependence of the disordering process in Fe-bearing dolomites. To avoid quench effects, in situ X-ray powder diffraction experiments were performed at 300–1350 K and 2.6–4.2 GPa. The long-range order parameter s , quantifying the degree of ordering, has been determined using structural parameters from Rietveld refinement and the normalized peak area variation of superstructure Bragg peaks characterizing structural ordering/disordering. Time-series experiments show that disordering occurs in 20–30 min at 858 K and in a few minutes at temperatures ≥999 K. The order parameter decreases with increasing temperature and X Fe . Complete disorder is attained in dolomite at ~1240 K, 100–220 K lower than previously thought, and in an ankeritic-dolomite s.s. with an X Fe of 0.43 at temperatures as low as ~900 K. The temperature-composition dependence of the disorder process was fitted with a phenomenological approach intermediate between the Landau theory and the Bragg-Williams model and predicts complete disorder in pure ankerite to occur already at ~470 K. The relatively low-temperature experiments of this study also constrain the breakdown of dolomite to aragonite+Fe-bearing magnesite at 4.2 GPa to temperature lower than ~800 K favoring an almost straight Clapeyron-slope for this disputed reaction.