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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-03-28
    Description: Remotely sensed vegetation indices have been extensively used to quantify plant and soil characteristics. The objectives of this study were to: (i) compare vegetation indices developed at different scales for measuring canopy N content (g∙N∙m−2) and concentration (%); and (ii) evaluate the effects of soil background reflectance, cultivar, illumination and atmospheric conditions on the ability of vegetation indices to estimate canopy N content. Data were collected from two rainfed field sites cropped to wheat in Southern Italy (Foggia) and in Southeastern Australia (Horsham). From spectral readings, 25 vegetation indices were calculated. The Perpendicular Vegetation Index showed the best prediction of plant N concentration (%) (r2 = 0.81; standard error (SE) = 0.41%; p 〈 0.001). The Canopy Chlorophyll Content Index showed the best predictive capability for canopy N content (g∙N∙m−2) (r2 = 0.73; SE = 0.603; p 〈 0.001). Canopy N content was best related to indices developed at the canopy scale and containing a red-edge wavelength. Canopy-scale indices were related to canopy N%, but such relationships needed to be normalized with biomass. Geographical location influenced mainly simple ratio or normalized indices, while indices that contained red-edge wavelengths were more robust and able to estimate canopy parameters more accurately.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-08-25
    Description: The overall efficiency of a regenerative chamber for a glass furnace mainly relies on the thermo-fluid dynamics of air and waste gas alternatively flowing through stacks of refractory bricks (checkers) determining the heat recovery. A numerical approach could effectively support the design strategies in order to achieve a deeper understanding of the current technology and hopefully suggest new perspectives of improvement. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) scheme for the regenerator is proposed, where the real geometry of the solid phase is modelled as a porous solid phase exchanging heat with the gas stream. Satisfactory data fitting proved the reliability of the present approach, whose applications are proposed in the last section of this study, to confirm how such a CFD modelling could be helpful in improving the overall energy efficiency of the regeneration chamber.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1073
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-05-30
    Description: Energies, Vol. 11, Pages 1379: In Deep Analysis on the Behavior of Grape Marc Constituents during Hydrothermal Carbonization Energies doi: 10.3390/en11061379 Authors: Daniele Basso Elsa Weiss-Hortala Francesco Patuzzi Marco Baratieri Luca Fiori Grape marc is a residue of the wine-making industry, nowadays not always effectively valorized. It consists of grape seeds (mostly lignocellulosic) and grape skins (mostly holocellulosic). In order to understand possible correlations between seeds and skins in forming hydrochar for it to be used as a solid biofuel, hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was applied separately to grape marc and its constituents. HTC was performed at several process conditions (temperature: 180, 220 and 250 °C; reaction time: 0.5, 1, 3 and 8 h), in order to collect data on the three phases formed downstream of the process: solid (hydrochar), liquid and gas. An in deep analytical characterization was performed: ultimate analysis and calorific value for hydrochar, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma (IPC) analyses for liquid phase, composition for gas phase. In previous works, the same experimental apparatus was used to treat residual biomass, obtaining interesting results in terms of possible hydrochar exploitation as a solid biofuel. Thus, the main objectives of this work were both to get results for validating the hypothesis to apply HTC to this feedstock, and to collect data for subsequent theoretical investigations. Moreover, a severity model was developed to allow a predictive description of the hydrochar yield as a function of a unique parameter condensing both temperature and reaction time effects. The results obtained demonstrate that this process can upgrade wet residues into a solid biofuel ad that the process can be satisfactorily described in terms of a severity factor.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1073
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-06-07
    Description: In this paper, a block-based watermarking scheme based on the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) is proposed. Our watermark, a pseudo-random Gaussian sequence, is embedded by modifying the angles formed by the right singular vectors of each block of the original image. The orthogonality property of the right singular vector matrix is preserved during the embedding process. Several experiments have been carried out to test the performance of the proposed scheme against different attack scenarios. We conclude that the proposed scheme is resistant against common signal processing operations and attacks, while it preserves the quality of the original image.
    Electronic ISSN: 1999-4893
    Topics: Computer Science
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-02-24
    Description: IJERPH, Vol. 15, Pages 381: Applicability of the Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire for Screening Contact Dermatological Disorders in Sea Fishers International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health doi: 10.3390/ijerph15020381 Authors: Piero Lovreglio Rossana Rotondi Patrizia Chiarappa Paolo Romita Ignazio Drago Fabrizio Guarneri Antonella Basso Leonardo Soleo Caterina Foti This survey aimed to evaluate the applicability of the Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (NOSQ) as a preliminary screening tool to investigate the presence of contact dermatological disorders in sea fishermen. The Italian version of the NOSQ was administered to 143 male fishermen working at an Apulia (Southern Italy) Fisheries, and 136 male workers who had never worked as sea fishers (controls). A significantly higher rate of frequency of transient itchy wheals on the hands, wrists, and forearms was recorded in the fishermen as compared to the controls (49.6% vs. 8.1%; p < 0.001), while there was no significant difference in the frequency of eczema (8.4% vs. 6.6%). In 46.1% of the fishermen, the onset of transient itchy wheals was associated with contact with specific agents and the most common causes were algae and aquatic plants (49.3%) and seabed sludge (25.3%). In conclusion, the administration of the NOSQ can be useful in preliminary screening for dermatitis in fishermen, although it could show a possible overestimation of the prevalence of transient itchy wheals.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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