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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: The necessity of transport electrification is already undeniable due to, among other facts, global Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and fossil-fuel dependency. In this context, electric vehicles (EVs) play a fundamental role. Such vehicles are usually seen by the network as simple loads whose needs have to be supplied. However, they can contribute to the correct operation of the network or a microgrid and the provision of ancillary services and delay the need to reinforce the power lines. These concepts are referred to as Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G), Vehicle-to-Building (V2B) and Vehicle-to-Home (V2H). In paper, a deep classification and analysis of published charging strategies is provided. In addition, optimal charging strategies must minimise the degradation of the batteries to increase their lifetime, since it is considered that the life of a battery ends when its capacity is reduced by 20% with respect to its nominal capacity. Therefore, an optimal integration of EVs must consider both grid and batteries impact. Finally, some guidelines are proposed for further research considering the current limitations of electric vehicle technology. Thus, these proposed guidelines are focused on V2G optimal management, enabling new business models while keeping economic viability for all parts involved.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1073
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: In the present work, the streaming potential of A. ferrooxidans and pyrite was measured in two environments: fresh and saline water (water with 35 g/L of NaCl) at different pH values. Also, attachment kinetics of A. ferrooxidans to pyrite was studied in fresh and saline water at pH 4. The results show that A. ferrooxidans and pyrite had lower streaming potentials (comparing absolute values) in saline water than in fresh water, indicating the compression in the electrical double layer caused by Cl− and Na+ ions. It was also determined that the bacteria had a higher level of attachment to pyrite in fresh water than in saline water. The high ionic strength of saline water reduced the attractive force between A. ferrooxidans and pyrite, which in turn reduced bacterial attachment. Electrostatic interactions were determined to be mainly repulsive, since the bacteria and mineral had the same charge at pH 4. Despite this, the bacteria adhered to pyrite, indicating that hydrophobic attraction forces and Lifshitz–van der Waals interactions were stronger than electrostatic interactions, which caused the adhesion of A. ferrooxidans to pyrite.
    Electronic ISSN: 2075-163X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by MDPI
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Electric vehicles (EVs) are a promising technology to reduce emissions, but its development enormously depends on the technology used in batteries. Nowadays, batteries based on lithium-ion (Li-Ion) seems to be the most suitable for traction, especially nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) and nickel-cobalt-aluminum (NCA). An appropriate model of these batteries is fundamental for the simulation of several processes inside an EV, such as the state of charge (SoC) estimation, capacity and power fade analysis, lifetime calculus, or for developing control and optimization strategies. There are different models in the current literature, among which the electric equivalent circuits stand out, being the most appropriate model when performing real-time simulations. However, impedance models for battery diagnosis are considered very attractive. In this context, this paper compares and contrasts the different electrical equivalent circuit models, impedance models, and runtime models for battery-based EV applications, addressing their characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and usual applications in the field of electromobility. In this sense, this paper serves as a reference for the scientific community focused on the development of control and optimization strategies in the field of electric vehicles, since it facilitates the choice of the model that best suits the needs required.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1073
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018
    Description: Tetracyclines, sulfonamides and amphenicols are broad spectrum antimicrobial drugs that are widely used in poultry farming. However, a high proportion of these drugs can be excreted at high concentrations in droppings, even after the end of a therapy course. This work intended to assess and compare concentrations of florfenicol (FF), florfenicol amine (FFa), chlortetracycline (CTC), 4-epi-chlortetracycline (4-epi-CTC), and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) in broiler chicken droppings. To this end, 70 chickens were housed under controlled environmental conditions, and assigned to experimental groups that were treated with therapeutic doses of either 10% FF, 20% CTC, or 10% SCP. Consequently, we implemented and designed an in-house validation for three analytical methodologies, which allowed us to quantify the concentrations of these three antimicrobial drugs using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Our results showed that FF and FFa concentrations were detected in chicken droppings up to day 10 after ceasing treatment, while CTC and 4-epi-CTC were detected up to day 25. As for SCP residues, these were detected up to day 21. Noticeably, CTC showed the longest excretion period, as well as the highest concentrations detected after the end of its administration using therapeutic doses.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: A gravitational field model based on two symmetric tensors, g μ ν and g ˜ μ ν , is studied, using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis with the most updated catalog of SN-Ia. In this model, new matter fields are added to the original matter fields, motivated by an additional symmetry ( δ ˜ symmetry). We call them δ ˜ matter fields. This theory predicts an accelerating Universe without the need to introduce a cosmological constant Λ by hand in the equations. We obtained a very good fit to the SN-Ia Data, and with this, we found the two free parameters of the theory called C and L 2 . With these values, we have fixed all the degrees of freedom in the model. The last H 0 local value measurement is in tension with the CMB Data from Planck. Based on an absolute magnitude M V = − 19.23 for the SN, Delta Gravity finds H 0 to be 74.47 ± 1.63 km/(s Mpc). This value is in concordance with the last measurement of the H 0 local value, 73.83 ± 1.48 km/(s Mpc).
    Electronic ISSN: 2218-1997
    Topics: Physics
    Published by MDPI
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