Electric vehicles (EVs) are a promising technology to reduce emissions, but its development enormously depends on the technology used in batteries. Nowadays, batteries based on lithium-ion (Li-Ion) seems to be the most suitable for traction, especially nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) and nickel-cobalt-aluminum (NCA). An appropriate model of these batteries is fundamental for the simulation of several processes inside an EV, such as the state of charge (SoC) estimation, capacity and power fade analysis, lifetime calculus, or for developing control and optimization strategies. There are different models in the current literature, among which the electric equivalent circuits stand out, being the most appropriate model when performing real-time simulations. However, impedance models for battery diagnosis are considered very attractive. In this context, this paper compares and contrasts the different electrical equivalent circuit models, impedance models, and runtime models for battery-based EV applications, addressing their characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and usual applications in the field of electromobility. In this sense, this paper serves as a reference for the scientific community focused on the development of control and optimization strategies in the field of electric vehicles, since it facilitates the choice of the model that best suits the needs required.
Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering