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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-05-19
    Description: Information, Vol. 9, Pages 128: Key Concept Identification: A Comprehensive Analysis of Frequency and Topical Graph-Based Approaches Information doi: 10.3390/info9050128 Authors: Muhammad Aman Abas bin Md Said Said Jadid Abdul Kadir Israr Ullah Automatic key concept extraction from text is the main challenging task in information extraction, information retrieval and digital libraries, ontology learning, and text analysis. The statistical frequency and topical graph-based ranking are the two kinds of potentially powerful and leading unsupervised approaches in this area, devised to address the problem. To utilize the potential of these approaches and improve key concept identification, a comprehensive performance analysis of these approaches on datasets from different domains is needed. The objective of the study presented in this paper is to perform a comprehensive empirical analysis of selected frequency and topical graph-based algorithms for key concept extraction on three different datasets, to identify the major sources of error in these approaches. For experimental analysis, we have selected TF-IDF, KP-Miner and TopicRank. Three major sources of error, i.e., frequency errors, syntactical errors and semantical errors, and the factors that contribute to these errors are identified. Analysis of the results reveals that performance of the selected approaches is significantly degraded by these errors. These findings can help us develop an intelligent solution for key concept extraction in the future.
    Electronic ISSN: 2078-2489
    Topics: Computer Science
    Published by MDPI
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Irrigation with low water quality can adversely affect soil characteristics, optimal moisture for tillage, and crop productivity, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. We determined the optimal moisture for tillage processing and the effects of optimal and wet tillage on physical and chemical soil characteristics and wheat productivity after irrigation with different water qualities (waste, saline, and highly saline water). We used the Atterberg limit to determine the suitable moisture content for tillage. Tillage at optimal moisture content improved soil characteristics by reducing soil salinity, sodicity, bulk density, shear strength, compaction, and increasing hydraulic conductivity compared to that of wet tillage. It also enhanced growth and productivity of wheat grown with low quality of water (i.e., fresh and waste water), resulting in higher grain yield and root weight at different growth stages than that of saline and highly saline water. In conclusion, tillage at optimal moisture content alleviates the impact of salinity through improving soil physical and chemical characteristics. Optimum tillage can be applied at 20 and 24 days from the previous irrigation in saline and highly saline soils, respectively. Irrigation with waste water resulted in a higher wheat grain yield than saline and highly saline water.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4395
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Economics
    Published by MDPI
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: T-cell resonators have been used lately for non-invasive blood glucose measurements for photoacoustic spectroscopy on skin samples. A resonator has a significant role in determining the strength of the measured signal and the overall sensitivity of the sensor. Here we present results of the measurement of the photoacoustic signal of such a T-cell resonator. The signal is also modelled using the amplitude mode expansion method, which is based on eigenmode expansion and the introduction of losses in the form of loss factors. The measurement reproduced almost all the calculated resonances from the numerical models with fairly good agreement. The cause of the differences between the measured and the simulated resonances are explained. In addition, the amplitude mode expansion simulation model is established as a faster and computationally less demanding photoacoustic simulation alternative to the viscothermal model. The resonance frequencies from the two models differ by less than 1.8%. It is noted that the relative height of the amplitudes from the two models depends on the location of the antinodes within the different parts of the resonator. The amplitude mode expansion model provides a quick simulation tool for the optimization and design of macro resonators.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-8220
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by MDPI
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Tropical forests and the biodiversity they contain are declining at an alarming rate throughout the world. Although southern Belize is generally recognized as a highly forested landscape, it is becoming increasingly threatened by unsustainable agricultural practices. Deforestation data allow forest managers to efficiently allocate resources and inform decisions for proper conservation and management. This study utilized satellite imagery to analyze recent forest cover and deforestation in southern Belize to model vulnerability and identify the areas that are the most susceptible to future forest loss. A forest cover change analysis was conducted in Google Earth Engine using a supervised classification of Landsat 8 imagery with ground-truthed land cover points as training data. A multi-layer perceptron neural network model was performed to predict the potential spatial patterns and magnitude of forest loss based on the regional drivers of deforestation. The assessment indicates that the agricultural frontier will continue to expand into recently untouched forests, predicting a decrease from 75.0% mature forest cover in 2016 to 71.9% in 2026. This study represents the most up-to-date assessment of forest cover and the first vulnerability and prediction assessment in southern Belize with immediate applications in conservation planning, monitoring, and management.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by MDPI
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: The study aims to clarify the relationship between soil organic carbon (SOC) and human activity under arid conditions, in the east area of the Nile Delta, Egypt. SOC is one of the critical factors in food production and plays an important role in the climate change because it affects the physio-chemical soil characteristics, plant growth, and contributes to sustainable development on global levels. For the purpose of our investigations, 120 soil samples (0–30 cm) were collected throughout different land uses and soil types of the study area. Multiple linear regressions (MLR) were used to investigate the spatiotemporal relationship of SOC, soil characteristics, and environmental factors. Remote sensing data acquired from Landsat 5 TM in July 1995 and operational land imager (OLI) in July 2018 were used to model SOC pool. The results revealed significant variations of soil organic carbon pool (SOCP) among different soil textures and land-uses. Soil with high clay content revealed an increase in the percentage of soil organic carbon, and had mean SOCP of 6.08 ± 1.91 Mg C ha−1, followed by clay loams and loamy soils. The higher values of SOCP were observed in the northern regions of the study area. The phenomenon is associated with the expansion of the human activity of initiating fish ponds that reflected higher values of SOC that were related to the organic additions used as nutrients for fish. Nevertheless, the SOC values decreased in southeast of the study area with the decrease of soil moisture contents and the increase in the heavy texture profiles. As a whole, our findings pointed out that the human factor has had a significant impact on the variation of soil organic carbon values in the Eastern Nile Delta from 1995 to 2018. As land use changes from agricultural activity to fish ponds, the SOCP significantly increased. The agriculture land-use revealed higher SOCP with 60.77 Mg C ha−1 in clay soils followed by fish ponds with 53.43 Mg C ha−1. The results also showed a decrease in SOCP values due to an increasing in land surface temperature (LST) thus highlighting that influence of temperature and ambient soil conditions linked to land-use changes have a marked impact on surface SOCP and C sequestration.
    Electronic ISSN: 2071-1050
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: The Oum Er-Rbia estuary is located on the Atlantic littoral of Morocco. It undergoes severe clogging due to the sand deposition in its outlet. The current study examined the indicators of the morphodynamic evolution in the littoral system including the Oum Er-Rbia estuary and the neighboring beaches over 1970–2017. The methodology adopted was based on the analysis and the interpretation of aerial photographs and Google Earth images under a GIS environment and field work. The morphodynamic evolution was discussed by taking into account the evolution of hydraulic facilities installed in the watershed area, especially the construction of dams, as well as the dredging works in the Oum Er-Rbia estuary. The results highlight the morphologic evolution estimated in terms of surface units observed in the estuary and the neighboring beaches. The evolution of the littoral system was mainly influenced by the closest dam location and by the dredging works, in addition to the regulation of the river flow by the installation of hydraulic facilities upstream.
    Electronic ISSN: 2077-1312
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by MDPI
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Rivers in the Lake Victoria Basin support a multitude of ecosystem services, and the economies of the riparian countries (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, and Burundi) rely on their discharge, but projections of their future discharges under various climate change scenarios are not available. Here, we apply Vector Autoregressive Moving Average models with eXogenous variables (VARMAX) statistical models to project hydrological discharge for 23 river catchments for the 2015–2100 period, under three representative concentration pathways (RCPs), namely RCPs 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5. We show an intensification of future annual rainfall by 25% in the eastern and 5–10% in the western part of the basin. At higher emission scenarios, the October to December season receives more rainfall than the March to May season. Temperature projections show a substantial increase in the mean annual minimum temperature by 1.3–4.5 °C and warming in the colder season (June to September) by 1.7–2.9 °C under RCP 4.5 and 4.9 °C under RCP 8.5 by 2085. Variability in future river discharge ranges from 5–267%, increases with emission intensity, and is the highest in rivers in the southern and south eastern parts of the basin. The flow trajectories reveal no systematic trends but suggest marked inter-annual variation, primarily in the timing and magnitude of discharge peaks and lows. The projections imply the need for coordinated transboundary river management in the future.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Previous research on compound trapezoidal cross sections has mainly focused on improving the prediction of the discharge (flow rate) because of its inherent challenges. This paper focuses on two other important aspects: Section shape and optimal construction cost. First, the paper proposes a new compound section with third-degree polynomial sides of main channel with horizontal bottom (HB) that allows its top corners to be smooth, called herein compound polynomial section. The special cases of this versatile section include the simple polynomial section, polygonal section, trapezoidal-rectangular section, two-segment linear-side section, and parabolic bottom-trapezoidal section. The simple polynomial section, which is the bank-full part of the compound polynomial section, can further produce parabolic (with or without HB), trapezoidal, rectangular, and triangular sections. Second, an optimization model that minimizes construction cost (excavation and lining) of the compound (or simple) polynomial section is developed. The model includes discharge and physical constraints. Theoretical and empirical methods of discharge prediction were used in the model. The results show that the simple polynomial section was more economical than the popular parabolic section by up to 8.6% when the side slopes were restricted. The new polynomial-based sections not only reduced construction cost, but also improved maintenance and aesthetics. As such, the new sections should be of interest to researchers and practitioners in hydraulic engineering.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4441
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by MDPI
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-03-12
    Description: Agriculture, Vol. 8, Pages 38: Harvesting Method Affects Water Dynamics and Yield of Sweet Orange with Huanglongbing Agriculture doi: 10.3390/agriculture8030038 Authors: Said Hamido Kelly Morgan Changes in grove management practices may change crop water dynamics. The objective of this study was to estimate sap flow, stem water potential (Ψstem), and citrus yield as affected by harvesting methods in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) trees affected by Huanglongbing. The study was initiated in March 2015 for two years on five-year-old commercial sweet orange trees at a commercial grove located at Felda, Florida (26.61° N, 81.48° W) on Felda fine sand soil (Loamy, siliceous, superactive, hyperthermic Arenic Endoaqualfs). All measurements were replicated before and after harvest in four experiments (A, B, C and D) under hand and mechanical harvesting treatments. Sap flow measurements were taken on four trees per treatment with two sensors per tree. Sap flow measured by the heat balance method at hourly intervals during March and April of 2015 and 2016 significantly declined after harvesting by 25% and 35% after hand and mechanical harvesting, respectively. Ψstem measured after harvest was significantly higher than measurements before harvest. The average value of Ψstem measured increased by 10% and 6% after hand and mechanical harvesting, respectively. Mechanical harvesting exhibited lower fruit yields that averaged between 83%, 63%, 49% and 36% of hand-harvested trees under A, B, C and D experiments, respectively. It is concluded that the hand harvesting method is less stressful and less impactful on tree water uptake and fruit yield compared with mechanical harvesting.
    Electronic ISSN: 2077-0472
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Published by MDPI
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Lower levels of physical activity (PA) have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Worldwide, there is a shift towards a lifestyle with less PA, posing a serious threat to public health. One of the suggested mechanisms behind the association between PA and disease development is through systemic inflammation, in which circulating blood cells play a pivotal role. In this study we investigated the relationship between genetically determined PA and circulating blood cells. We used 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with objectively measured PA levels to perform a Mendelian randomization analysis on circulating blood cells in 222,645 participants of the UK Biobank. For inverse variance fixed effects Mendelian randomization analyses, p 〈 1.85 × 10−3 (Bonferroni-adjusted p-value of 0.05/27 tests) was considered statistically significant. Genetically determined increased PA was associated with decreased lymphocytes (β = –0.03, SE = 0.008, p = 1.35 × 10−3) and decreased eosinophils (β = –0.008, SE = 0.002, p = 1.36 × 10−3). Although further mechanistic studies are warranted, these findings suggest increased physical activity is associated with an improved inflammatory state with fewer lymphocytes and eosinophils.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4425
    Topics: Biology
    Published by MDPI
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