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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: 5-methylcytosine (m5C) is an abundant RNA modification that’s presence is reported in a wide variety of RNA species, including cytoplasmic and mitochondrial ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and transfer RNAs (tRNAs), as well as messenger RNAs (mRNAs), enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) and a number of non-coding RNAs. In eukaryotes, C5 methylation of RNA cytosines is catalyzed by enzymes of the NOL1/NOP2/SUN domain (NSUN) family, as well as the DNA methyltransferase homologue DNMT2. In recent years, substrate RNAs and modification target nucleotides for each of these methyltransferases have been identified, and structural and biochemical analyses have provided the first insights into how each of these enzymes achieves target specificity. Functional characterizations of these proteins and the modifications they install have revealed important roles in diverse aspects of both mitochondrial and nuclear gene expression. Importantly, this knowledge has enabled a better understanding of the molecular basis of a number of diseases caused by mutations in the genes encoding m5C methyltransferases or changes in the expression level of these enzymes.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4425
    Topics: Biology
    Published by MDPI
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