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  • Articles  (9)
  • MDPI  (4)
  • ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg  (3)
  • Cambridge University Press  (2)
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  • Articles  (9)
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  • 1
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW) | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: The paper presents results for the development of total factor productivity (TFP) growth for 35 industries. It analyses the medium-term and long-term trends in these industries during the last two decades. The method used for the calculation was first proposed by Hulten (1986). It takes into account capacity utilization effects for the capital stock. Comparing the average TFP growth rates for manufacturing before, during, and after the two oil price shocks one observes that there is a steady acceleration from a fairly low 1.4 per cent rate during 1970-74 to 2 per cent during 1984-89. Contrary labour productivity, measured by annual working hours, declined. Therefore the increase in TFP growth rates has to be attributed to a marked shift in capital productivity. During the early 70ies capital productivity growth rates were negative in manufacturing supporting a hypothesis of capital using and labour saving technological progress. Since then capital productivity became positive across all major subindustries in manufacturing. This led to the up-tum in TFP growth. Four hypothesis are proposed in the paper to explain the shift in the development of capital productivity growth. In the last section a number of cross-section regressions for the 35 industries for the whole period as well as a number of subperiods are calculated. As the results show Verdooms Law seems to be valid for all periods considered. Therefore high growth industries are - with respect to gross value added - leading industries in high TFP growth as well
    Keywords: D24 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Berlin: Duncker & Humblot | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Wettbewerbspolitik ; Industrieökonomik ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 3
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    Berlin: Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (DIW) | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: The paper presents results for the development of total factor productivity (TFP) growth for 35 industries. It analyses the medium-term and long-term trends in these industries during the last two decades. The method used for the calculation was first proposed by Huiten (J986). It takes into account capacity utilization effects for the capital stock. Comparing the average TFP growth rates for manufacturing before, during, and after the two oil price shocks one observes that there is a steady acceleration from a fairly low 1.4per cent rate during 1970-74 to 2 per cent during 1984-89. Contrary labour productivity, measured by annual working hours, declined. Therefore the increase in TFP growth rates has to be attributed to a marked shift in capital productivity. During the early 70ies capital productivity growth rates were negative in manufacturing supporting a hypothesis of capital using and labour saving technological progress. Since then capital productivity became positive across all major subindustries in manufacturing. This led to the up-turn in TFP growth. Four hypothesis are proposed in the paper to explain the shift in the development of capital productivity growth. In the last section a number of cross-section regressions for the 35 industries for the whole period as well as a number of subperiods are calculated. As the results show Verdoorns Law seems to be valid for all periods considered Therefore high growth industries are - with respect to gross value added - leading industries in high TFP growth as well.
    Keywords: D24 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: The effect of salinity and water stresses on the essential oil components of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil was investigated. Rosemary plants were submitted to different water treatments: tap water (TW), salt water (SW) and without irrigation (NIR). GC/MS analysis showed that ten and eleven volatile compounds were identified in essential oil of rosemary plants irrigated with tap water (TW) and salt water (SW), respectively. However, thirteen volatile compounds were identified in essential oil of non-irrigated plants (NIR). Moreover, among these compounds, α-Pinene, Eucalyptol (1,8 Cineol), Camphene, Borneol, D-verbenone, Bornyl acetate were the major components of oil. Also, GC/MS results highlighted that non-irrigated rosemary plants showed the highest essential oil yield (Y). Obtained oil yields followed the order YNIR 〉 YTW 〉 YSW. In conclusion, qualitative and quantitative differences in rosemary essential oil components were highlighted in relation to water stress.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4395
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Economics
    Published by MDPI
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Leg dominance has been reported as one potential risk factor for lower-limb injuries in recreational downhill skiers. The current study proposed and tested two possible mechanisms for a leg dominance effect on skiing injuries—imbalance of the knee muscle strength and bilateral asymmetry in sensorimotor control. We hypothesized that the knee muscle strength (Hypothesis 1; H1) or postural control (Hypothesis 2; H2) would be affected by leg dominance. Fifteen well-experienced recreational downhill skiers (aged 24.3 ± 3.2 years) participated in this study. Isometric knee flexor/extensor muscle strength was tested using a dynamometer. Postural control was explored by using a kinematic principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the coordination structure and control of three-dimensional unipedal balancing movements while wearing ski equipment on firm and soft standing surfaces. Only H2 was supported when balancing on the firm surface, revealing that when shifting body weight over the nondominant leg, skiers significantly changed the coordination structure (p 〈 0.006) and the control (p 〈 0.004) of the lifted-leg movements. Based on the current findings, bilateral asymmetry in sensorimotor control rather than asymmetry in strength seems a more likely mechanism for the previously reported effect of leg dominance on lower-limb injury risk in recreational downhill skiers.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Sample entropy (SaEn) applied on center-of-pressure (COP) data provides a measure for the regularity of human postural control. Two mechanisms could contribute to altered COP regularity: first, an altered temporal structure (temporal regularity) of postural movements (H1); or second, altered coordination between segment movements (coordinative complexity; H2). The current study used rapid, voluntary head-shaking to perturb the postural control system, thus producing changes in COP regularity, to then assess the two hypotheses. Sixteen healthy participants (age 26.5 ± 3.5; seven females), whose postural movements were tracked via 39 reflective markers, performed trials in which they first stood quietly on a force plate for 30 s, then shook their head for 10 s, finally stood quietly for another 90 s. A principal component analysis (PCA) performed on the kinematic data extracted the main postural movement components. Temporal regularity was determined by calculating SaEn on the time series of these movement components. Coordinative complexity was determined by assessing the relative explained variance of the first five components. H1 was supported, but H2 was not. These results suggest that moderate perturbations of the postural control system produce altered temporal structures of the main postural movement components, but do not necessarily change the coordinative structure of intersegment movements.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-01-29
    Description: The development of coastal polynyas, areas of enhanced heat flux and sea ice production strongly depend on atmospheric conditions. In Antarctica, measurements are scarce and models are essential for the investigation of polynyas. A robust quantification of polynya exchange processes in simulations relies on a realistic representation of atmospheric conditions in the forcing dataset. The sensitivity of simulated coastal polynyas in the south-western Weddell Sea to the atmospheric forcing is investigated with the Finite-Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) using daily NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data (NCEP), 6 hourly Global Model Europe (GME) data and two different hourly datasets from the high-resolution Consortium for Small-Scale Modelling (COSMO) model. Results are compared for April to August in 2007–09. The two coarse-scale datasets often produce the extremes of the data range, while the finer-scale forcings yield results closer to the median. The GME experiment features the strongest winds and, therefore, the greatest polynya activity, especially over the eastern continental shelf. This results in higher volume and export of High Salinity Shelf Water than in the NCEP and COSMO runs. The largest discrepancies between simulations occur for 2008, probably due to differing representations of the ENSO pattern at high southern latitudes. The results suggest that the large-scale wind field is of primary importance for polynya development.
    Print ISSN: 0954-1020
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2079
    Topics: Biology , Geography , Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-11-26
    Description: Mesoscale model simulations were conducted for the Weddell Sea region for the autumn and winter periods of 2008 using a high-resolution, limited-area, non-hydrostatic atmospheric model. A sea ice–ocean model was run with enhanced horizontal resolution and high-resolution forcing data of the atmospheric model. Daily passive thermal and microwave satellite data was used to derive the polynya area in the Weddell Sea region. The focus of the study is on the formation of polynyas in the coastal region of Coats Land, which is strongly affected by katabatic flows. The polynya areas deduced from two independent remote sensing methods and data sources show good agreement, while the results of the sea ice simulation show some weaknesses. Linkages between the pressure gradient force composed of a katabatic and a synoptic component, offshore wind regimes and polynya area are identified. It is shown that the downslope surface offshore wind component of Coats Land is the main forcing factor for polynya dynamics, which is mainly steered by the offshore pressure gradient force, where the katabatic force is the dominant term. We find that the synoptic pressure gradient is opposed to the katabatic force during major katabatic wind events.
    Print ISSN: 0954-1020
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2079
    Topics: Biology , Geography , Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Postural control research suggests a non-linear, n-shaped relationship between dual-tasking and postural stability. Nevertheless, the extent of this relationship remains unclear. Since kinematic principal component analysis has offered novel approaches to study the control of movement components (PM) and n-shapes have been found in measures of sway irregularity, we hypothesized (H1) that the irregularity of PMs and their respective control, and the control tightness will display the n-shape. Furthermore, according to the minimal intervention principle (H2) different PMs should be affected differently. Finally, (H3) we expected stronger dual-tasking effects in the older population, due to limited cognitive resources. We measured the kinematics of forty-one healthy volunteers (23 aged 26 ± 3; 18 aged 59 ± 4) performing 80 s tandem stances in five conditions (single-task and auditory n-back task; n = 1–4), and computed sample entropies on PM time-series and two novel measures of control tightness. In the PM most critical for stability, the control tightness decreased steadily, and in contrast to H3, decreased further for the younger group. Nevertheless, we found n-shapes in most variables with differing magnitudes, supporting H1 and H2. These results suggest that the control tightness might deteriorate steadily with increased cognitive load in critical movements despite the otherwise eminent n-shaped relationship.
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-4300
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by MDPI
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