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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: In recent decades, numerous marine species have changed their distribution ranges due to ocean warming. The Spotfin burrfish, Chilomycterus reticulatus, is a reef fish with a global distribution along tropical, subtropical and warm-temperate areas of the Pacific, Indian and Atlantic oceans. In this work, we analyzed the presence of this species, between 1990 and 2019, at two islands of the Canarian Archipelago under varying oceanographic conditions: El Hierro (the westernmost island, under more tropical conditions) and Gran Canaria (a central-east island, under more cooler conditions). We expected that, under increased ocean temperatures in recent decades, the number of sightings has increased in Gran Canaria relative to El Hierro. We compiled information from different sources, including interviews and local citizenship databases. A total of 534 sightings were reported: 38.58% from El Hierro and 61.43% from Gran Canaria. The number of sightings on Gran Canaria has significantly increased through time, at a rate of 0.1 sightings per year; at El Hierro, however, the number of sightings has not significantly changed over time. Sea Surface Temperature has linearly increased in both El Hierro and Gran Canaria islands over the last three decades. Positive Sea Surface Temperature anomalies, particularly in 1998 and 2010, including high winter minimum temperatures, provide an ideal oceanographic context to favour the arrival of new individuals and, consequently, the increase in the number of sightings in Gran Canaria. Still, potential donor areas of fish recruits remain unknown.
    Electronic ISSN: 1424-2818
    Topics: Biology
    Published by MDPI
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Quiescent volcanoes dissipate a large part of their thermal energy through hot soils and ground degassing mainly in restricted areas called Diffuse Degassing Structures. La Solfatara crater represents the main spot of thermal release for the Campi Flegrei volcano (Italy) despite its reduced dimensions with regards to the whole caldera. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to measure thermal energy release extrapolating it from the ground surface temperature. We used imaging from thermal cameras at short distances (1 m) to obtain a mapping of areas with thermal anomalies and a measure of their temperatures. We built a conceptual model of the energy release from the ground to atmosphere, which well fits the experimental data taken in the La Solfatara crater. Using our model and data, we could estimate the average heat flux in a portion of the crater as q a v g = 220 ± 40 W / m 2 , compatible with other measurements in literature.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by MDPI
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018
    Description: Literature points out the role of parenting on adolescent cyberbullying involvement. However, it is necessary to clarify how gender affects this relationship. The aim of this study has been to examine the relation between the adolescents’ perception about parenting practices, and their involvement in cyberbullying, bearing in mind both girls’ and boys’ gender and progenitors’ gender. The sample comprised 2060 Spanish secondary school students (47.9% girls; Mage = 14.34). Two-way ANOVA and binary logistic regression analyses were carried out. An effect of the interaction between sex and cyberbullying roles in maternal affection and communication, inductive discipline, and psychological control, as well as paternal promotion of autonomy and psychological control, was found. In general, it can be observed that the more negative results were found in cyber-aggressors, especially when this role is assumed by girls. The results of logistic regression analysis suggest that parenting practices explain better cyberbullying involvement in girls compared to boys, finding some important differences between both sexes regarding protective and risk factors. These findings highlight the importance of parenting practices to explain cyberbullying involvement, which supports the necessity of including family among the addresses of intervention programs.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: This article presents the impact on cyberbullying of the Asegúrate program. This educational program is based on the theory of normative social behavior, self-regulation skills, and the beliefs held by adolescents and consists in a whole package of strategies and resources to help teachers to include in the ordinary curricula. The evaluation of Asegúrate was carried out with a sample of 4779 students (48.9% girls) in 5th and 6th grade in primary education and compulsory secondary education (M = 12.76; SD = 1.67) through a quasi-experimental methodology, with two measures over time. The instrument used was the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire. The results show that the involvement in cyberbullying as cyber-victim, cyber-aggressor, and cyber-bully-victim increase without intervention, whereas it diminishes when intervention is carried out by the teachers who have received specific training and have used the didactic Asegúrate package. Additionally, the impact of the intervention on the different types of behaviors was analyzed, and the results show that Asegúrate is more effective with some forms than with others. Consequently, the Asegúrate program is effective for decreasing the prevalence of cyberbullying, but some modifications need to be made to impact on all the different forms it can take.
    Print ISSN: 1661-7827
    Electronic ISSN: 1660-4601
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Published by MDPI
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: In a nonlinear system, impasse points are singularities beyond which solutions are not continuable. In this article, we study two families of nonlinear electrical circuits, which can be represented by nonlinear Implicit Differential Equations. We set conditions that ensure the existence of impasse points in both families of circuits. In the literature, there exist general results to analyse the presence of such singularities in given differential equations of this type. However, the method proposed in this work allows detecting their existence in these electrical topologies in an extremely straightforward way, as illustrated by the examples of application.
    Print ISSN: 1024-123X
    Electronic ISSN: 1563-5147
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: This paper addresses the problem of vibrations produced by switched reluctance actuators, focusing on the linear configuration of this type of machines, aiming at its characterization regarding the structural vibrations. The complexity of the mechanical system and the number of parts used put serious restrictions on the effectiveness of analytical approaches. We build the 3D model of the actuator and use finite element method (FEM) to find its natural frequencies. The focus is on frequencies within the range up to nearly 1.2 kHz which is considered relevant, based on preliminary simulations and experiments. Spectral analysis results of audio signals from experimental modal excitation are also shown and discussed. The obtained data support the characterization of the linear actuator regarding the excited modes, its vibration frequencies, and mode shapes, with high potential of excitation due to the regular operation regimes of the machine. The results reveal abundant modes and harmonics and the symmetry characteristics of the actuator, showing that the vibration modes can be excited for different configurations of the actuator. The identification of the most critical modes is of great significance for the actuator’s control strategies. This analysis also provides significant information to adopt solutions to reduce the vibrations at the design.
    Print ISSN: 1687-5591
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-5605
    Topics: Computer Science , Technology
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-05-24
    Description: Wireless Personal or Body Area Networks (WPANs or WBANs) are the main mechanisms to develop healthcare systems for an ageing society. Such systems offer monitoring, security, and caring services by measuring physiological body parameters using wearable devices. Wireless sensor networks allow inexpensive, continuous, and real-time updates of the sensor data, to the data repositories via an Internet. A great deal of research is going on with a focus on technical, managerial, economic, and social health issues. The technical obstacles, which we encounter, in general, are better methodologies, architectures, and context data storage. Sensor communication, data processing and interpretation, data interchange format, data transferal, and context data storage are sensitive phases during the whole process of body parameter acquisition until the storage. ANT+ is a proprietary (but open access) low energy protocol, which supports device interoperability by mutually agreeing upon device profile standards. We have implemented a prototype, based upon ANT+ enabled sensors for a real-time scenario. This paper presents a system architecture, with its software organization, for real-time message interpretation, event-driven based real-time bidirectional communication, and schema flexible storage. A computer user uses it to acquire and to transmit the data using a Windows service to the context server.
    Print ISSN: 1550-1329
    Electronic ISSN: 1550-1477
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-09-30
    Description: It is known that plant-based ethnomedicine represented the foundation of modern pharmacology and that many pharmaceuticals are derived from compounds occurring in plant extracts. This track still stimulates a worldwide investigational activity aimed at identifying novel bioactive products of plant origin. However, the discovery that endophytic fungi are able to produce many plant-derived drugs has disclosed new horizons for their availability and production on a large scale by the pharmaceutical industry. In fact, following the path traced by the blockbuster drug taxol, an increasing number of valuable compounds originally characterized as secondary metabolites of plant species belonging to the Spermatophyta have been reported as fermentation products of endophytic fungal strains. Aspects concerning sources and bioactive properties of these compounds are reviewed in this paper.
    Electronic ISSN: 2077-0472
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Published by MDPI
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: In viticulture, global warming requires reconsideration of current production models. At the base of this need there are some emerging phenomena: modification of phenological phases; acceleration of the maturation process of grapes, with significant increases in the concentration of sugar musts; decoupling between technological grape maturity and phenolic maturity. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of a natural anti-transpirant on grapevine physiology, berry, and wine composition of Aglianico cultivar. For two years, Aglianico vines were treated at veraison with the anti-transpirant Vapor Gard and compared with a control sprayed with only water. A bunch thinning was also applied to both treatments. The effectiveness of Vapor Gard were assessed through measurements of net photosynthesis and transpiration and analyzing the vegetative, productive and qualitative parameters. The results demonstrate that the application of anti-transpirant reduced assimilation and transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, berry sugar accumulation, and wine alcohol content. No significant differences between treatments were observed for other berry and wine compositional parameters. This method may be a useful tool to reduce berry sugar content and to produce wines with a lower alcohol content.
    Electronic ISSN: 2073-4395
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Economics
    Published by MDPI
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) occurs as an adverse consequence of left ventricle remodeling post-myocardial infarction. A change in mitral valve configuration with an imbalance between closing and tethering forces underlie this pathological condition. These abnormalities lead to impaired leaflet coaptation and a variable degree of mitral regurgitation, which can in turn influence the ventricular filling status, the heart rhythm and the afterload regardless of the residual ischemic insult. The IMR correction can be pursued through under-sizing mitral annuloplasty and papillary muscle approximation to restore the mitral valve and left ventricle physiological geometry to, consequently, achieve normalization of the engaged physical forces. Because the structures involved undergo extremely large deformations, a biomechanics model based on the Euler’s Elastica –the mitral leaflet– interlaced with nonlinear chordae tendineae anchored on papillary muscles has been constructed to elucidate the interactions between closing and tethering forces. The model takes into account the actual updated geometrical and mechanical features of the valvular and subvalvular apparatuses in physiological and IMR conditions, as well as in case of papillary muscle approximation, finally furnishing ad hoc geometry-based mathematical relations that could be utilised to support—and optimize—the relevant choices in cardiac surgery.
    Electronic ISSN: 1996-1944
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by MDPI
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