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  • ddc:330  (19)
  • Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)  (19)
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  • 1
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-21
    Description: The study of the demand for transport has among others applications, the valuation of travel time saving that is a very important question in cost-benefit analysis, and to adopt transport policy tools. Since McFadden developed a discrete choice model for travel demand, it has usually been the application of this model to study the individual behaviour when he has to choice among transport modes. Citizens of big cities have to face traffic congestion; pollution, wasted time in travels and fuel, noise, stress and accidents are the costs imposed by congestion to society, elements that reduce the quality of life in cities. Public transport is a real alternative to private transport that is socially less expensive, for this reason this paper tries to forecast travel demand for public transport in Cadiz when travelling have to choice between public or private transport, using a discrete choice model. The results of this analysis (travel demand, value of time, elasticities) can be used to design transport policies that could reduce congestion.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-21
    Description: Regional Development Networks of private and public organisations is a contemporary phenomenon that is reshaping strategies of local development by introducing new agents and more dynamism and flexibility in the decision making process. This approach reflects new trends in corporate and business development, balancing the tensions produced by competition and collaboration. Regions as networks incubators are regions with specific characteristics enhancing an emergent and evolving movement of networking between organisations working for the regional development. The purpose of this paper is to present the network scenario of two regions from Spain and Australia that exemplify the emergence and evolution of networks' incubator and the relevance to their regional development. Both regions are facing economic restructuring as a result of regional spatial competition on the global market. These regions could be characterised as learning regions and a definition of the network incubator will be provided. The paper will argue that regional networks are a development tool, which could act as a catalyst in stimulating economic revitalisation. It is possible to engineer this tool, stimulating the conditions of the region as a network incubator. Key Words: regions of networks' incubators, learning regions, local development
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-25
    Description: Although non-R&D innovation activities account for a significant portion of innovation efforts carried out across very heterogeneous economies in Europe, how to incorporate them in to economic models is not always straightforward. For instance, the traditional macro approach to estimating the determinants of total factor productivity (TFP) does not handle them well. To counter these problems, this paper proposes applying an augmented macro-theoretical model to estimate the determinants of TFP by jointly considering the effects of R&D and the impact of non-R&D innova- tion activities on the productivity levels of ?firms. Estimations from a model of a sample of EU-26 countries covering the period 2004-2008 show that the distinction between R&D and non-R&D e¤ects is significant for a number of diffffrent issues. First, the results show a sizable impact on TFP growth, as the impact of R&D is twice that of non-R&D. Second, absorptive capacity is only linked to R&D endowments. And third, the two types of endowments cannot strictly been seen as complementary, at least for the case of countries with high R&D intensities or high non-R&D intensities.
    Keywords: O0 ; O3 ; O4 ; ddc:330 ; TFP ; R&D ; non-R&D expenditures ; EU countries
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2017-01-25
    Description: In this paper we employ parametric and nonparametric techniques to analyse the effect of the changes registered on regional market potential on the growth of Spanish regions during the period 1860-1930. The study of the Spanish experience during these years conforms a case study that allows analyzing whether the construction of new transport infrastructure, as well as the changes in trade policy, that affected the relative market potential of the Spanish regions, ended up shaping regional growth trajectories. In order to carry out the analysis we make use of new evidence on regional inequality patterns in the long term based on recent estimations of per capita GDP for NUTS III Spanish regions (provinces) and an a la Harris measure of regional market potential that takes into account the economic distance between territories according to the changes registered in transport networks, the variations in the actual transport costs and the tariff policy followed over the period. Our results show a clear positive influence of market potential on regional economic growth, particularly along the years 1900-1930.
    Keywords: R0 ; N9 ; O18 ; N64 ; F14 ; ddc:330 ; market potential ; New Economic Geography ; regional growth ; economic history
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2017-08-04
    Description: This paper investigates whether and to what extent nonreciprocal preference regimes have increased developing countries' exports to richer countries. Moreover, it analyzes how they have affected donors' exports to beneficiary countries. Using recent developments in the econometric analysis of the gravity equation over the period 1990-2008, we find robust evidence that, on the whole, nonreciprocal preference regimes and GSP schemes have had an economically significant effect on exports from developing countries. However, the estimation of catch-all dummies masks heterogeneous results for the individual schemes. Finally, we find that nonreciprocal regimes have also increased exports from donors to beneficiary countries.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-08-04
    Description: In recent times, the international competitive panorama has undergone intense rapid change, due especially to the presence of new competitors, new technology and new markets. These changes and their repercussions have had a significant impact on many industrial districts, which has left many of these agglomerations in critical condition. When facing these new circumstances, the function of local institutions takes on a much greater importance in how these districts adapt to the new competitive context, connecting companies with external networks which give access to new sources of information and knowledge. Furthermore, the role of local institutions will always be conditioned by the context in which they are found. For instance, there are significant differences between traditional or low-tech districts and high-tech districts which offer technologically more advanced products and services. Thus, while for the second category there is a great deal of theoretical and academic evidence that supports the idea that institutions act as leader actors in processes of innovation and improvement, in districts which operate in traditional sectors there is a shortage of research that analyzes the role played by institutions in these low-tech districts. To fill this gap in the literature, we aim with this work to analyze the links established by the companies of two industrial districts, with different levels of innovation activity, with local institutions. We especially analyze the intermediary and pollinating function that these institutions can have within these districts. We have applied Social Network Analysis techniques, analyzing the structure and properties of networks in the district as well as the role played by institutions. Our aim is to contribute to the debate by establishing a way to measure the flows of information and knowledge between companies and local institutions in two different districts through a social network analysis. The results obtained are of particular interest and are in contrast with the more traditional view that assumes a positive association between the companies' opportunities for learning and the cohesion of the network.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-08-04
    Description: The equilibrium set of housing units (alternatives) can be characterized from the standpoint of both the demander and the supplier. The current work describes an application of the multicriteria single price model to the ranking of alternatives. By a generalization of the single price model and from both viewpoints an efficiency index can be calculated. We demonstrate how, in equilibrium, the two viewpoints result inevitably in inverse orders of ranking. The model is illustrated by a sample of housing units in the city of Valencia, Spain.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-08-04
    Description: Recently, network literature has considered the crucial importance of the resources which firm obtains through its network of external relationships. Specifically, this paper analyzes if the mediator effect of the internal resources on the association between Knowledge-Intensive Business Services (KIBS) and the growth of the New Innovative Firms (NIFs) is moderated by the belonging of the firm to an industrial cluster. The paper presents several contributions. First, this research shows like firms with higher internal resources exploit better the external resources and enhancing firm's performance. In this way we integrate both, network strategic perspective (external resources represented by the KIBS) and those authors from Resource-Based View, giving priority to internal resources. Moreover, we prove like the moderator role played internal resources is not constant on the contrary is changing when firm belong to an industrial cluster. Additionally, we consider as a contribution the application in this context of the particular and new analysis techniques to combine mediator and moderator effects as it is suggested in Preacher et al., (2007).
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Louvain-la-Neuve: European Regional Science Association (ERSA)
    Publication Date: 2017-08-03
    Description: Research and Development activities are key elements in the search of more productive economic outcomes, the generation of new economic sectors and, in general, of a better economic performance at the micro and macro levels. In many European countries, the responsibility of the design and implementation of R&D policies is shifting from the national level to the regional level, making the regional level a relevant field of analysis. Spain and Italy are examples of this progressive change. At the same time, the financial, economic and social crisis that is affecting the countries situated in the periphery of the eurozone is reducing the budget for R&D activities that firms, universities, public administrations and other institutions can devote to this issue. Again, Spain and Italy are clear examples of economic difficulties and diminishing public and private budgets. In this context, it is crucial to assess and measure the efficiency of all kind of expenditures, especially the ones that are directly linked with the achievement of a more competitive economy. In this way, regions achieving more efficiency should be granted with more funding or, alternatively, not efficient regions should adapt efficient R&D policies to their own institutional and social backgrounds. In this paper we will use the DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) methodology in order to measure at the regional level the efficiency ratio between R&D inputs and the outcomes achieved. DEA methodology compares the amount of inputs used with the outcomes achieved, ordering regions in terms of productivity, not in terms of absolute values. Following this path, the best ranked region will be the one that minimizes the use of inputs maximizing the amount of outputs. Results over time will be discussed and regions will be grouped according to their efficiency level and their evolution in this field over time. Comparisons between regions will be made at the national level (Italian regions on one side and Spanish regions on the other) and also adding all regions from the two countries. Typologies of regions according to their efficiency levels will be outlined and justified. The paper will conclude with some policy recommendations for each group of regions, so that regions can design policies and adopt measures in order to improve their efficiency and their overall results regarding R&D.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; R&D efficiency ; DEA ; regional analysis ; Spain ; Italy
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-08-04
    Description: Previous research carried out by this same authors went through the analysis of data sources and their potential to apply the polycentrism approach to territories where the urban features is weak (specifically in Castilla-La Mancha, Spain). Lately, several hubs were identified as potential centres and sub-centres in a regional articulation, helping out to delimitate accurately the map of polycentrism and Functional Urban Areas (FUAs) for each of them. Currently, we hope to depict those FUAs, highlighting the spatial cohesion, and looking for a better geographical knowledge, in accordance with current European standards. The most common methods to characterize functional areas used to be linked with numerous variables, demographic and economic, usually available and updated. Nevertheless, to go deepen is a difficult task because the broad range of indicators involved and the outcomes of recent dynamics. The specific aim of this paper is reviewing methodologies and datasets sources frequently used in the spatial evaluation, stressing those which focus less populated or dispersed areas. The analysis is driven by the difficulty to effectively assess what spatial cohesion is and how can it be measured, especially in these zones where this concept is crucial to understand the regional development.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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