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  • Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)  (18)
  • English  (18)
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  • English  (18)
  • 1
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-06
    Description: Using bilateral data on remittance flows to Pakistan for 23 major host countries, this is the first study that examines the effect of transaction costs on foreign remittances. The authors find that the effect of transaction costs on remittance flows is negative and significant; suggesting that a high cost will either refrain migrants from sending money back home or make them remit through informal channels. They also find that remittances are facilitated by the existence of migrant networks and improvements in home and host country financial services. Distance, which has been used in previous studies as an indicator of the cost of remitting, is found to be a poor proxy.
    Keywords: F22 ; F30 ; O11 ; ddc:330 ; remittances ; geographical distance ; transaction cost ; financial services ; Pakistan
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-06
    Description: In this paper, the authors analyze the differences in piracy rates from one country to another. Like previous papers on the topic, they find that more developed countries have lower incentives for pirating. Unlike previous papers, they find that the piracy rate is positively correlated with the tax burden rate but negatively correlated with the domestic market size and exports over GDP. The authors also separate the impacts of education and R&D on piracy, and find two effects with opposite signs. Moreover, they find that those countries with smaller, more efficient bureaucracies are likely to protect intellectual property more effectively. Finally, they show that the spread of access to the Internet is negatively correlated with the software piracy rate.
    Keywords: K42 ; L86 ; O3 ; O57 ; ddc:330 ; piracy rate ; education ; R&D ; quality bureaucracies ; intellectual property ; Internet
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-10-10
    Description: Trade policy barriers are only one element of overall trade costs. Among these, and due to the decrease in the influence of tariff barriers on trade over time, institutional barriers might increase in relative importance and become a key obstacle to the movements of goods across countries. This paper quantifies and compares the impact that a number of trade facilitation and trade policy barriers have on bilateral trade flows. A theoretically justified gravity model of trade is estimated by using the methodology proposed in Baier and Bergstrand (2009) for a cross-section of countries in the year 2000. Results indicate that institutional trade barriers have a greater impact on trade flows than tariff barriers. According to these findings, trade policy negotiation efforts should focus on facilitating trade processes and should be at the forefront of multilateral negotiations.
    Keywords: F14 ; ddc:330 ; Tariff barriers ; trade facilitation ; sectoral trade
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-11-06
    Description: This paper focuses on the relationship between technological innovation and international trade. In particular, the effect of technological achievement on exports is studied. In order to measure technological innovation, the technological achievement index (TAI) is used, thus providing a summary of a society's technological achievements and allowing countries to be classified into four groups according to their level of technological innovation: Leaders, Potential Leaders, Dynamic Adopters and Marginalised. The effect of technological variables on sectoral exports is analysed using a gravity model of trade. The existence of a possible non-linear relationship is also investigated, since the effect of improved technological innovation on trade could vary according to the technological achievement in countries. Results show the expected positive effect of technological innovation on export performance and the existence of non-linearities is confirmed. A 'U-shaped' relationship is found between exports and creation of technology and between exports and diffusion of old innovations, whereas an inverted-'U-shaped' relationship is found between exports and diffusion of recent innovations and between exports and human skills.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Technological innovation ; sectoral exports ; gravity model ; panel data ; non-linearities ; Innovation ; Technischer Fortschritt ; Export ; Innovationsdiffusion ; Komparativer Kostenvorteil ; Gravitationsmodell ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2016-06-28
    Description: The small average size of Spanish firms has been put forward as the main impediment to their international competitiveness. This paper re-examines the link between firm size and exports. The new theories of international trade emphasize firm heterogeneity as the theoretical basis of export behavior. In the context of this heterogeneity, the paper uses the quantile regression methodology to analyze the effect of firm size on firm export propensity (percentage of exported sales). The paper confirms the existence of a positive relationship between firm size and export intensity but finds that the conventional estimates of the elasticity of export propensity with respect to firm size on the average of the export propensities distribution underestimate the effect at the bottom of the distribution and overestimate the effect on most of it. Consequently, policies aimed at increasing exports should concentrate their efforts on increasing the size of those firms with lower export propensity.
    Keywords: F14 ; L25 ; ddc:330 ; exports ; firm size ; quantile regression ; firm heterogeneity
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2017-05-19
    Description: This paper attempts to evaluate the information content of money for the forecast of inflation, output, investment and consumption in the euro zone. It considers M1 and M3; a number of modifications to these aggregates is also proposed to enhance their forecast performance. The evaluation employs Granger-causality tests, stability tests and historical out-of-sample forecasts. On balance the information content of money appears to be rather limited. An improvement of the forecast is confined to the real variables and to the second half of the nineties. For the first half of the nineties the forecast performance of money is generally poor.
    Keywords: E37 ; E50 ; ddc:330 ; Euro-Zone ; Geldmengen ; Prognosen ; Konjunkturindikator ; Prognoseverfahren ; Geldmenge ; Europäische Wirtschafts- und Währungsunion ; Schätzung ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-10-24
    Description: In a standard Diamond-Mortensen-Pissarides labour market with frictions, the authors seek to determine when there is more employment with individual wage bargaining than with collective wage bargaining, using a wage equation generated by the standard total surplus sharing rule. Using a Cobb-Douglas production function (AL, 〈 1), they find that if the bargaining power of the individual is high compared to the bargaining power of the union, there is more unemployment with individual wage setting and vice versa. When the individual worker and the union have the same bargaining power, if the cost of opening a vacancy is sufficiently high, there is more unemployment with individual wage setting. Finally, for a constant marginal product of labour production function AL, when the individual worker and the union have the same bargaining power, individual bargaining produces more unemployment.
    Keywords: E24 ; O41 ; ddc:330 ; Matching Frictions ; Unemployment ; Individual and Collective Wage Setting
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Kiel: Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW)
    Publication Date: 2018-01-20
    Description: In this paper, the authors analyze the differences in piracy rates from one country to another. Like previous papers on the topic, they find that more developed countries have lower incentives for pirating. Unlike previous papers, they find that the piracy rate is positively correlated with the tax burden rate but negatively correlated with the domestic market size and exports over GDP. The authors also separate the impacts of education and R&D on piracy, and find two effects with opposite signs. Moreover, they find that those countries with smaller, more efficient bureaucracies are likely to protect intellectual property more effectively. Finally, they show that the spread of access to the Internet is negatively correlated with the software piracy rate.
    Keywords: K42 ; L86 ; O3 ; O57 ; ddc:330 ; piracy rate ; education ; R&D ; quality bureaucracies ; intellectual property ; internet
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-02-22
    Description: This study is the first to estimate a system of simultaneous gravity equations for Chinese exports, imports and foreign direct investment (FDI) using a sample of 167 countries over the period 2003-2012. The main results indicate that trade and outward FDI are complementary. In particular, the authors show that outward Chinese FDI is related to higher exports and imports and that China trades more with countries hosting Chinese FDI. Results are also robust to the use of instrumental variables. Therefore, the popular claim that Chinese investment could be detrimental for developing countries is not supported by the data.
    Keywords: F14 ; F21 ; F59 ; ddc:330 ; international trade ; foreign direct investment ; China
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-04-02
    Description: In a standard Diamond-Mortensen-Pissarides labour market with frictions, the authors seek to determine when there is more employment with individual wage bargaining than with collective wage bargaining, using a wage equation generated by the standard total surplus sharing rule. Using a Cobb-Douglas production function, they find that if the bargaining power of the individual is high compared to the bargaining power of the union, there is more unemployment with individual wage setting and vice versa. When the individual worker and the union have the same bargaining power, if the cost of opening a vacancy is sufficiently high, there is more unemployment with individual wage setting. Finally, for a constant marginal product of labour production function AL, when the individual worker and the union have the same bargaining power, individual bargaining produces more unemployment.
    Keywords: E24 ; O41 ; ddc:330 ; Matching frictions ; unemployment ; individual and collective wage setting
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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