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  • 1
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: To determine the environmental impact of oil-combustion pollutants and soil dust on a lichen, we examined the spectral reflectance of thalli of the epiphytic fruticose lichen, Ramalina duriaei, expressed as values of NDVI (the normalized difference vegetation index). We analyzed electrolyte leakage caused by degradation of cell membranes in terms of electric conductivity of water, apart from chlorophyll degradation, the latter expressed as changes in the A435 nm/A415 nm ratio to indicate the physiological status of the lichen. The concentrations of Al, Cr, Fe, K, Ni, P, sulfate-S, Ti and V in the lichen thallus were measured to quantify the degree of pollution. Thalli of R. duriaei, growing in a nature reserve on the periphery of a 40-year-old industrial town, Ashdod, in southwest Israel were compared with thalli of R. duriaei from an unpolluted forest in the northeastern part of the country transplanted to the polluted areas in and around the town. After an exposure for 10 months, many transplants exhibited lower NDVI values, higher electric conductivity values as well as a lower A435 nm/A415 nm ratio. The three physical/physiological parameters thus reflected severe injury in the lichen transplants. The concentrations of Al, Cr, Fe, Ni, sulfate-S, Ti and V in the lichen transplants were found to correlate inversely with the NDVI values, whereas the concentrations of Fe, Ni, Ti and V were found to correlate with electric conductivity. The decrease in the A435 nm/A415 nm ratio was found to correlate with high concentrations of Al, Fe, Ni, sulfate-S, Ti and V in the lichen transplants, whereas the concentration of K and P correlated with both the NDVI value and the A435 nm/A415 nm ratio. It is concluded that in situ thalli of R. duriaei, the only indigenous fruticose lichen growing in the region of Ashdod, are endangered by the presence of pollutants and by acid rain due to the combustion of heavy fuel oil.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-10-21
    Description: Temporal changes and spatial patterns are often studied by analyzing land-cover changes (LCCs) using spaceborne images. LCC is an important factor, affecting runoff within watersheds. The objective was to estimate the effects of 20 years of LCCs on rainfall-runoff relations in an extreme rainfall event. A 1989 Landsat TM-derived classification map was used as input for a Kinematic Runoff and Erosion (KINEROS) hydrological model along with the precipitation data of an extreme rainfall event. Model calibration was performed using measured runoff volume data. Validation of the model performance was conducted by comparing the model results to measured data. A similar procedure was used with a 2009 land-cover classification map as an input to the KINEROS model, along with similar precipitation data and calibration parameters, in order to understand the possible outcomes of a rainfall event of such a magnitude and duration after 20 years of LCCs. The results show an increase in runoff volume and peak discharge between the time periods as a result of LCCs. A strong relationship was detected between vegetation cover and the runoff volume. The LCCs with most pronounced effects on runoff volumes were related to urbanization and vegetation removal.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9309
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9317
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-01-01
    Description: This study presents an approach for low-cost mapping of tree heights at the landscape level. The proposed method integrates parameters related to landscape (slope, orientation, and topographic height), tree size (crown diameter), and competition (crown competition factor and age), and determines the mean stand tree height as a function of tree competitive capability. The model was calibrated and validated against a standard inventory dataset collected over a dryland planted forest in the eastern Mediterranean region. The validation of the model shows a high and significant level of correlation between measured and modeled datasets (; ), with almost negligible (less than 1 m) levels of absolute and relative errors. The validated model was implemented for mapping mean tree height on a per-pixel basis by using high-spatial-resolution satellite imagery. The resulting map was, in turn, validated against an independent dataset of ground measurements. The presented approach could help to reduce the need for fieldwork in compiling single-tree-based inventories and to apply surface-roughness properties to hydrometeorological studies and regional energy/water-balance evaluation.
    Electronic ISSN: 2090-892X
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-01-01
    Description: Temporal changes and spatial patterns are often studied by analyzing land-cover changes (LCCs) using spaceborne images. LCC is an important factor, affecting runoff within watersheds. The objective was to estimate the effects of 20 years of LCCs on rainfall-runoff relations in an extreme rainfall event. A 1989 Landsat TM-derived classification map was used as input for a Kinematic Runoff and Erosion (KINEROS) hydrological model along with the precipitation data of an extreme rainfall event. Model calibration was performed using measured runoff volume data. Validation of the model performance was conducted by comparing the model results to measured data. A similar procedure was used with a 2009 land-cover classification map as an input to the KINEROS model, along with similar precipitation data and calibration parameters, in order to understand the possible outcomes of a rainfall event of such a magnitude and duration after 20 years of LCCs. The results show an increase in runoff volume and peak discharge between the time periods as a result of LCCs. A strong relationship was detected between vegetation cover and the runoff volume. The LCCs with most pronounced effects on runoff volumes were related to urbanization and vegetation removal.
    Print ISSN: 1687-9309
    Electronic ISSN: 1687-9317
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Hindawi
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