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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: In theory, individual producer responsibility (IPR) creates incentives for "design-for-recycling". Yet in practice, implementing IPR is challenging, particularly if applied to waste electric and electronic equipment. This article discusses different options for implementing IPR schemes and producers' under German WEEE legislation. In addition, practical aspects of a German "return share" brand sampling scheme are examined. Concerning "new" WEEE put on the market after 13 August 2006, producers in Germany can choose between two different methods of calculating take-back obligations. These can be determined on the basis of "return shares" or "market shares". While market shares are regularly monitored by a national clearing house, the "return share" option requires sampling and sorting of WEEE. Herein itis shown that the specifics of the German WEEE take-back scheme require high sample sizes and multi-step test procedures to ensure a statistically sound sampling approach. Since the market share allocation continues to apply for historic waste, producers lack incentives for choosing the costly brand sampling option. However, even return share allocation might not imply a decisive step towards IPR, as it merely represents an alternative calculation of market shares. Yet the fundamental characteristics of the German take-back system remain unchanged: the same anonymous mix of WEEE goes to the same treatment operations. In the future, radio frequency identification-based sorting options could foster IPR and incentives for changes in product design.
    Description: Dieser Beitrag ist mit Zustimmung des Rechteinhabers aufgrund einer (DFG-geförderten) Allianz- bzw. Nationallizenz frei zugänglich. - This publication is with permission of the rights owner freely accessible due to an Alliance licence and a national licence (funded by the DFG, German Research Foundation) respectively.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Individual producer responsibility (IPR) ; extended producer responsibility (EPR) ; waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) ; return share ; brand sorting ; collection ; cost allocation ; Umweltmanagement ; Elektroindustrie ; Abfallentsorgung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
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    Heidelberg: Springer | ZBW - Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften, Leibniz-Informationszentrum Wirtschaft Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-01-25
    Description: Sowohl beim Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien als auch im Bereich der Elektromobilität hat sich die Bundesregierung ambitionierte Ziele gesetzt. Im Kontext der Energiewende soll der Anteil fluktuierender erneuerbarer Energien an der Stromerzeugung weiter deutlich steigen. Dies erfordert tendenziell eine erhöhte Vorhaltung von Regelleistung. Gleichzeitig sinkt die Stromerzeugung aus thermischen Kraftwerken, die bisher einen großen Teil der Regelleistung vorgehalten haben. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird untersucht, welche Rolle eine angenommene Flotte von 4,4 Millionen Elektrofahrzeugen im Jahr 2035 bei der Bereitstellung von Regelleistung in Deutschland spielen könnte. Dabei werden zwei verschiedene Szenarien des Kraftwerksparks sowie unterschiedliche Möglichkeiten der Bereitstellung von Regelleistung mit und ohne Rückspeisung elektrischer Energie von den Fahrzeugbatterien in das Stromnetz untersucht. Berechnungen mit einem hierfür weiterentwickelten, quellenoffenen Simulationsmodell zeigen, dass die Elektrofahrzeugflotte einen nennenswerten Beitrag zu einer kostengünstigen Regelleistungsvorhaltung leisten kann. Dies gilt auch dann, wenn keine Rückspeisung von den Fahrzeugbatterien in das Stromnetz möglich ist. Unter Basisannahmen fallen hingegen die Arbitrageaktivitäten am Großhandelsmarkt sehr gering aus. Auch die Systemkosteneinsparungen sind im Vergleich zu einem rein kostenoptimalen Laden der Fahrzeugbatterien relativ niedrig. Unter alternativen Annahmen zur Zusammensetzung des Kraftwerksparks und zu den Batterieabnutzungskosten kann es dagegen zu nennenswerten Arbitrageaktivit{äten am Großhandelsmarkt, zu einer noch höheren Regelleistungsbereitstellung und zu wesentlich größeren Systemkosteneinsparungen kommen.
    Description: The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12398-016-0174-7.
    Description: The German government has set ambitious goals for both the expansion of renewable energy supply and electromobility. According to its Energiewende policy, electricity supply from fluctuating renewables is supposed to further increase considerably. This will tend to require a greater provision of balancing reserves. At the same time, supply from conventional dispatchable plants, which used to provide the bulk of reserves, will decrease. Against this background, this article analyzes the scope for an assumed fleet of 4.4 million electric vehicles to supply balancing reserves in 2035. Examining two different future power plant scenarios, it explores the potentials of reserve provision with and without the option of feeding electricity from vehicle batteries back to the grid. Results from an extended open-source power system simulation model show that the assumed vehicle fleet can efficiently provide a substantial share of reserve requirements, also in case the vehicle-to-grid option is not available. Arbitrage on wholesale markets, on the other hand, is negligible under basic assumptions. Likewise, total system cost savings are minor when compared to a pure cost-optimal loading of vehicle batteries. Under alternative assumptions on the future power plant portfolio as well as on battery degradation costs, however, wholesale arbitrage, reserve provision, and system cost savings can be substantial.
    Keywords: Q40 ; Q42 ; ddc:330 ; Balancing reserves ; Electric vehicles ; V2G ; Renewables ; Power system modeling ; Germany
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:article
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