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  • ddc:330  (21)
  • Competition
  • Entwicklungsländer
  • Heidelberg: Springer  (14)
  • Göttingen: Verein für Socialpolitik, Ausschuss für Entwicklungsländer  (7)
  • Göttingen: Ibero-Amerika-Inst. für Wirtschaftsforschung
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-07-18
    Description: A high court has to decide whether a lawis constitutional, unconstitutional, or interpretable. The voting system is runoff. Runoff voting systems can be interpreted both, as social choice functions or as mechanisms. It is known that, for universal domains of preferences, runoff voting systems have several drawbacks as social choice functions. Although in our setting the preferences are restricted to be singlepeaked over three alternatives, these problems persist. Runoff mechanisms are not well-behaved either: they do not implement any Condorcet consistent social choice function in undominated subgame perfect Nash equilibria. We show, however, that some Condorcet consistent social choice functions can be implemented in dominant strategies via other simple and natural mechanisms.
    Keywords: C72 ; D71 ; D78 ; ddc:330 ; runoff voting system ; Condorcet consistency ; strategy-proofness ; implementation theory ; Wahlsystem ; Condorcet-Paradoxon ; Nash-Gleichgewicht ; Nichtkooperatives Spiel ; Neue politische Ökonomie ; Theorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-07-18
    Description: We consider allocation problemswith indivisible goods when preferences are single-peaked. In this paper we identify the family of efficient, non-manipulable, consistent, and balanced solutions. We refer those solutions as Temporary Satisfaction Methods, that can be viewed as extensions to the indivisible case of the so-called uniform rule.
    Keywords: D61 ; D63 ; D74 ; ddc:330 ; allocation problem ; indivisibilities ; single-peaked preferences ; priority standard ; temporary satisfaction methods ; Allokationseffizienz ; Präferenztheorie ; Unteilbarkeit
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: Since early 2008 interim trade agreements between the EU and six regions of ACP countries (respectively sub-groups within the region) are in force. These agreements could be stepping stones towards full Economic Partnership Agreements between the EU and all ACP countries. We estimate the welfare effects of the interim agreements for nine African countries: Botswana, Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Tanzania, and Uganda. Our analysis is based on highly disaggregated data for trade and tariffs (HS six digit level) and follows a simple analytical model by Milner et al. (2006) to quantify the welfare effects of trade liberalization. We extend the literature in two principal ways: First, we estimate elasticities of import demand for the nine African countries importing from the EU and Sub-Saharan Africa respectively. Second, we apply the actual tariff reduction rates recently negotiated between the EU and the African countries to estimate the agreement's welfare effects of trade liberalization for the African countries. Results indicate that Botswana, Cameroon, Mozambique, and Namibia will significantly profit from the interim agreements, while the trade effects for Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda are close to zero. However, Tanzania and Uganda also have the potential to experience positive welfare effects, but predicted results of the liberalization based on the interim agreement's reduction rates fall short of the potential of a full liberalization.
    Keywords: F10 ; F16 ; O24 ; O11 ; ddc:330 ; Economic Partnership Agreements ; Africa ; trade liberalization ; tariff reduction ; welfare analysis ; ACP countries
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: In this paper we investigate the relationship between per capita income and foreign aid for a panel of131 (alternatively 52) recipient countries over the period 1960 to 2006 by employing annual data and 5-year averages. Reliance on standard panel estimation techniques (such as 2-ways FE estimation, panel GMM and SUR estimation) points to some pitfalls (impossibility of possible cointegration between aid and growth, autocorrelation of the error terms, endogeneity of the variables) that must be dealt with panel time series techniques (such as panel unit root test, panel cointegration tests, a panel Granger causality test and panel dynamic feasible generalized least squares estimation (DFGLS). Estimations with DFGLS show that aid has an insignificant or a minute negative significant impact on per capita income. This result holds for countries with above- and below-average aid-to-GDP ratios, for countries with different levels of human development, with different income levels and from different regions of the world. It can be shown that by not controlling for autocorrelation, one erroneously attributes to aid a larger, significant negative impact on per capita income. We also find that aid has a significant positive (even though) small impact on investment, but a negative and significant impact on domestic savings (crowding out) and the real exchange rate (appreciation).
    Keywords: F35 ; O11 ; C23 ; C52 ; ddc:330 ; foreign aid ; real per capita income ; panel time series techniques ; dynamic feasible generalized least squares
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Göttingen: Verein für Socialpolitik, Ausschuss für Entwicklungsländer
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: This paper uses a static and dynamic gravity model of trade to investigate the link between German development aid and exports from Germany to the recipient country. The findings indicate that German aid is associated with an increase in exports of goods that is larger than the aid flow, with a point estimate of 133% of the aid given. The paper also distinguishes among recipient countries and finds that the return to aid of German exports is higher for countries considered as "strategic aid recipients" by the German government. In addition, the evolution of the estimated coefficients over time shows an effect that is always positive but oscillates over time. Interestingly, in the 2001-2005 a steady increase on the effect of aid on trade can be observed after a decrease in the second half of the nineties.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-05-22
    Description: This paper uses the gravity model of trade to investigate the link between foreign aid and exports in recipient countries and tests for the transmission channels between aid and exports/economic development in developing countries. Most of the theoretical work emphasizes the negative impact of aid on recipient countries' exports primarily due to exchange rate appreciation, disregarding the positive impact of aid linked to the income effect. The empirical findings, in contrast, indicate that the net impact of aid on recipient countries' exports is positive and that the average return for recipients' exports is about 1.50 US$ for every aid dollar spent. The paper also estimates the effect of different types of aid (bilateral aid [from one donor to one specific recipient, and bilateral aid from all the other donors to one specific recipient], as well as multilateral aid flowing to a specific recipient) and finds that at least two types of aid have a positive and significant effect on recipients' exports, thus ruling out a major crowding out effect. It is further found that aid is hardly export-enhancing in Africa.
    Keywords: F10 ; F35 ; ddc:330 ; International Tade ; Foreign Aid ; Recipient Exports ; Real Exchange Rate
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-04-10
    Description: The trade deficit of the USA with its NAFTA partners, Mexico and Canada, increased since 1994 from 21,991 to 119,257 million dollars in 2013 (UNCOMTRADE, 2015. http://comtrade.un.org/db), and most of this increase is explained by the growth in the volume of commerce between Mexico and the USA. Nonetheless, since the mid-1990s Mexico has been experiencing its lowest economic growth rates. By using the World Input Output Database and the Input-Output Analysis, this paper presents an estimate of the intra-NAFTA trade flows in terms of value added and its distribution among both labor and capital; labor by skill level; and content of persons engaged. The findings show that trade between the NAFTA members is quite different concerning value added. In 1995 the USA had a trade deficit of 30,351 million dollars with Canada, of which 6384 million dollars was a surplus in favor of Canada in terms of value added. Similarly, the same year the USA had a deficit of 4276 million dollars with Mexico that became a surplus for the latter of 4561 million dollars in terms of value added. For the following years, until 2011, a similar pattern was observed. The distribution of this value added between capital and labor compensations tends to favor USA and Canadian workers, especially middle-skilled labor, and the sector that tends to have the lowest share is the low-skilled Mexican and Canadian workers. Even more, the average labor compensations per hour grew less for the three types of Mexican workers.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Value added in trade ; Income distribution ; NAFTA
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-04-18
    Description: By means of a single-bounded, referendum format contingent valuation, this paper estimates willingness to pay (WTP) for improved air quality among residents of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Findings from this paper illustrate heterogeneity in WTP associated with environmental and social attitudes, and family concerns. For instance, WTP is higher than average if respondents state a very high priority to air pollution but smaller than average if respondent's household contains more adults than the sample median. This contingent valuation exercise provides elements to carry out cost-benefit analysis of environmental policies both recently implemented and currently under discussion in the MCMA context. For instance, a cost-benefit analysis using estimates from this paper suggests benefits from improved air quality surpass the costs of investing in hybrid buses. Usefulness of this study is underscored by pointing out recent evidence suggesting that (1) air pollution in MCMA has larger health impacts than in similar cities located in developed countries, and (2) policies tackling air pollution in MCMA have had no impact on pollution levels.
    Keywords: Q51 ; Q53 ; D61 ; ddc:330 ; Air quality ; Willingness to pay ; Mexico City ; Contingent valuation ; Attitudes
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Göttingen: Verein für Socialpolitik, Ausschuss für Entwicklungsländer
    Publication Date: 2016-12-07
    Description: This paper uses the gravity model of trade to investigate the link between bilateral and multilateral foreign aid and donor's exports. There are three primary findings from this approach. First, in the long term, the average return, in terms of an increase in the donor's level of goods exports, is approximately $ 2.15 US for every aid dollar spent on bilateral aid. Second, multilateral aid has a positive effect on export levels only in the short term, whereas in the long term, the effect is negative. Third, aid from other donors does not give rise to a displacement effect for a given donor-recipient trade relationship. This paper also makes comparisons among donors and finds that aid has a positive and significant effect on most donors' export levels.
    Keywords: F10 ; F35 ; ddc:330 ; exports ; foreign aid ; donors ; panel data ; sample selection ; GLM
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Göttingen: Verein für Socialpolitik, Ausschuss für Entwicklungsländer
    Publication Date: 2016-12-07
    Description: Aid is given for various purposes. Its impact on donors' exports usually depends on whether it is given for altruistic reasons (to overcome human tragedies and disasters) or in an understanding to promote development (to finance infrastructure or social projects). As to humanitarian aid the impact of aid on donors' exports will be most probably lower than in the latter case where related and unrelated imports for realizing development projects have been explicitly or implicitly agreed upon. Germany is known to be a country that ranks below average in tying its aid among the EU countries. Nonetheless there have been studies that found an extremely high positive impact of German bilateral aid on German exports. This finding will be re-examined in this study. An augmented gravity model is utilized to evaluate the impact of German bilateral aid on German exports. Stochastic and deterministic trends in the series are controlled to avoid spurious regression results.
    Keywords: F14 ; F35 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; bilateral aid ; donors' exports ; time series properties of panel data ; ECM and DOLS estimation in a panel context
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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