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  • ddc:330  (19)
  • Competition
  • Entwicklungsländer
  • Heidelberg: Springer  (14)
  • Essen: RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung  (5)
  • Göttingen: Ibero-Amerika-Inst. für Wirtschaftsforschung
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-07-18
    Description: A high court has to decide whether a lawis constitutional, unconstitutional, or interpretable. The voting system is runoff. Runoff voting systems can be interpreted both, as social choice functions or as mechanisms. It is known that, for universal domains of preferences, runoff voting systems have several drawbacks as social choice functions. Although in our setting the preferences are restricted to be singlepeaked over three alternatives, these problems persist. Runoff mechanisms are not well-behaved either: they do not implement any Condorcet consistent social choice function in undominated subgame perfect Nash equilibria. We show, however, that some Condorcet consistent social choice functions can be implemented in dominant strategies via other simple and natural mechanisms.
    Keywords: C72 ; D71 ; D78 ; ddc:330 ; runoff voting system ; Condorcet consistency ; strategy-proofness ; implementation theory ; Wahlsystem ; Condorcet-Paradoxon ; Nash-Gleichgewicht ; Nichtkooperatives Spiel ; Neue politische Ökonomie ; Theorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-07-18
    Description: We consider allocation problemswith indivisible goods when preferences are single-peaked. In this paper we identify the family of efficient, non-manipulable, consistent, and balanced solutions. We refer those solutions as Temporary Satisfaction Methods, that can be viewed as extensions to the indivisible case of the so-called uniform rule.
    Keywords: D61 ; D63 ; D74 ; ddc:330 ; allocation problem ; indivisibilities ; single-peaked preferences ; priority standard ; temporary satisfaction methods ; Allokationseffizienz ; Präferenztheorie ; Unteilbarkeit
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-04-10
    Description: The trade deficit of the USA with its NAFTA partners, Mexico and Canada, increased since 1994 from 21,991 to 119,257 million dollars in 2013 (UNCOMTRADE, 2015. http://comtrade.un.org/db), and most of this increase is explained by the growth in the volume of commerce between Mexico and the USA. Nonetheless, since the mid-1990s Mexico has been experiencing its lowest economic growth rates. By using the World Input Output Database and the Input-Output Analysis, this paper presents an estimate of the intra-NAFTA trade flows in terms of value added and its distribution among both labor and capital; labor by skill level; and content of persons engaged. The findings show that trade between the NAFTA members is quite different concerning value added. In 1995 the USA had a trade deficit of 30,351 million dollars with Canada, of which 6384 million dollars was a surplus in favor of Canada in terms of value added. Similarly, the same year the USA had a deficit of 4276 million dollars with Mexico that became a surplus for the latter of 4561 million dollars in terms of value added. For the following years, until 2011, a similar pattern was observed. The distribution of this value added between capital and labor compensations tends to favor USA and Canadian workers, especially middle-skilled labor, and the sector that tends to have the lowest share is the low-skilled Mexican and Canadian workers. Even more, the average labor compensations per hour grew less for the three types of Mexican workers.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Value added in trade ; Income distribution ; NAFTA
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-04-18
    Description: By means of a single-bounded, referendum format contingent valuation, this paper estimates willingness to pay (WTP) for improved air quality among residents of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Findings from this paper illustrate heterogeneity in WTP associated with environmental and social attitudes, and family concerns. For instance, WTP is higher than average if respondents state a very high priority to air pollution but smaller than average if respondent's household contains more adults than the sample median. This contingent valuation exercise provides elements to carry out cost-benefit analysis of environmental policies both recently implemented and currently under discussion in the MCMA context. For instance, a cost-benefit analysis using estimates from this paper suggests benefits from improved air quality surpass the costs of investing in hybrid buses. Usefulness of this study is underscored by pointing out recent evidence suggesting that (1) air pollution in MCMA has larger health impacts than in similar cities located in developed countries, and (2) policies tackling air pollution in MCMA have had no impact on pollution levels.
    Keywords: Q51 ; Q53 ; D61 ; ddc:330 ; Air quality ; Willingness to pay ; Mexico City ; Contingent valuation ; Attitudes
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-08-28
    Description: [Einleitung ...] Vor diesem Hintergrund hat das MAIS eine Studie in Auftrag gegeben, um eine aktuelle Bestandsaufnahme der geringfügigen Beschäftigung in NRW durchzuführen. Dabei geht es einerseits darum zu überprüfen, ob sich die Situation im Vergleich zu den Berichtsergebnissen 2012 verändert hat. Hierbei stehen die Fragen im Vordergrund, welche Personen einem Minijob nachgehen und welche Firmen Minijobs anbieten, und aus welchen Beweggründen dies jeweils geschieht. Andererseits soll der Frage nachgegangen werden, wie sich die Beschäftigungssituation der geringfügig Beschäftigten seit 2012 verändert hat, vor allem hinsichtlich des gezahlten Lohns, der Einhaltung von Arbeitnehmerrechten und dem Übergang in sozialversicherungspflichtige Beschäftigung. Von besonderem Interesse in diesem Zusammenhang ist, ob die oben genannten veränderten Rahmenbedingungen sowie die ergriffenen Politikmaßnahmen einen Einfluss auf die Situation der geringfügig Beschäftigten gehabt haben. Auch wenn die vorliegende Studie hierzu keine kausale Evidenz liefern kann, gibt sie doch einige Hinweise, die diesbezügliche Rückschlüsse zulassen. Um die genannten Fragen zu beantworten, wurden im August/September 2016 - analog zu den Befragungen im Jahr 2012 - zwei NRW-weite Befragungen durchgeführt, eine unter geringfügig Beschäftigten und eine unter Arbeitgebern, die geringfügige Beschäftigungsverhältnisse aufweisen. Die Ergebnisse dieser Befragungen sind in der vorliegenden Studie enthalten, die wie folgt aufgebaut ist. Das folgende Kapitel gibt einen kurzen Überblick über die rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen der geringfügigen Beschäftigung sowie die derzeitige Situation bei Minijobs, sowohl in Deutschland als auch in NRW. Hierbei werden aktuelle Entwicklungen anhand entsprechender Daten aufgezeigt und die zum Thema existierende Literatur diskutiert. Kapitel 3 enthält Details zur Methodik der Befragung und diskutiert deren Repräsentativität. In Kapitel 4 und 5 werden die Ergebnisse der Befragungen von Arbeitnehmern und Arbeitgebern präsentiert. Das abschließende Kapitel 6 fasst die wichtigsten Ergebnisse zusammen und zieht wirtschaftspolitische Schlussfolgerungen.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Atypische Beschäftigung ; Mindestlohn ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Vergleich ; Nordrhein-Westfalen ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-08-28
    Description: Research on the relationship between high-skilled migration and remittances has been limited by the lack of suitable microdata. We create a unique cross-country dataset by combining household surveys from five Sub-Saharan African countries that enables us to analyze the effect of migrants' education on their remittance behavior. Having comprehensive information on both ends of the migrant-origin household relationship and employing household fixed effects specifications that only use within-household variation for identification allows us to address the problem of unobserved heterogeneity across migrants' origin households. Our results reveal that migrants' education has no significant impact on the likelihood of sending remittances. Conditional on sending remittances, however, high-skilled migrants send significantly higher amounts of money to their households left behind. This effect holds for the sub-groups of internal migrants and migrants in non-OECD countries, while it vanishes for migrants in OECD destination countries once characteristics of the origin household are controlled for.
    Description: Auf Basis von Haushaltsbefragungen in fünf Ländern Sub-Sahara Afrikas untersuchen wir den Einfluss der Bildung von Migranten auf deren Rücküberweisungen an ihre im Heimatland verbliebenen Haushalte. Das Vorhandensein umfangreicher Informationen über die Migranten als auch über die Haushalte im Heimatland sowie die Verwendung von Haushalts-Fixed-Effects-Schätzungen erlauben es uns, das Problem unbeobachtbarer Heterogenität zwischen den Herkunftshaushalten zu adressieren. Unsere Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Bildung der Migranten keinen signifikanten Einfluss auf deren Wahrscheinlichkeit hat, Rücküberweisungen zu schicken. Gegeben, dass Rücküberweisungen gesendet werden, überweisen Migranten mit einem Universitätsabschluss jedoch signifikant höhere Beträge an ihre Herkunftshaushalte als geringer qualifizierte Migranten. Schätzungen für unterschiedliche Gruppen von Migranten zeigen, dass dieser Effekt für interne Migranten sowie für Migranten in Nicht-OECD-Ländern bestehen bleibt. Für Migranten in OECD-Ländern finden wir hingegen keinen signifikanten Einfluss des Bildungsniveaus auf deren Rücküberweisungen sobald Charakteristika des Haushaltes im Herkunftsland in den Modellen berücksichtigt werden.
    Keywords: F22 ; F24 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; migration ; remittances ; skill level ; brain drain ; Sub-Saharan Africa
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-07-18
    Description: While general equilibrium theories of trade stress the role of third-country effects, little work has been done in the empirical foreign direct investment (FDI) literature to test such spatial linkages. This paper aims to provide further insights into long-run determinants of Spanish FDI by considering not only bilateral but also spatially weighted third-country determinants. The few studies carried out so far have focused on FDI flows in a limited number of countries. However, Spanish FDI outflows have risen dramatically since 1995 and today account for a substantial part of global FDI. Therefore, we estimate recently developed spatial panel data models by maximum likelihood (ML) procedures for Spanish outflows (19932004) to top-50 host countries. After controlling for unobservable effects, we find that spatial interdependence matters and provide evidence consistent with new economic geography theories of agglomeration, mainly due to complex (vertical) FDI motivations. Spatial error models estimations also provide illuminating results regarding the transmission mechanism of shocks.
    Keywords: F21 ; F23 ; C31 ; C33 ; ddc:330 ; foreign direct investment ; spatial econometrics ; panel data ; Direktinvestition ; Allgemeines Gleichgewicht ; Maximum-Likelihood-Methode ; Schätzung ; Spanien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-05-30
    Description: In this study, we consider the role of a publicly owned platform and programme quality in the free-to-air broadcasting industry. We compare the equilibrium levels of advertising under private and mixed duopoly competition, and show that the connection between programme quality and advertising incentives is drastically different in each scenario. We also consider the welfare implications of our analysis and generate policy implications regarding the optimal level of government intervention in the broadcasting industry.
    Keywords: L11 ; L33 ; L82 ; M37 ; ddc:330 ; Quality ; Mixed duopoly ; Advertising ; Media
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-05-10
    Description: Immigration enforcement cooperation between final destination and transit countries has increased in the last decades. However, the question whether these measures are successful in deterring undocumented migrants has not been previously explored by the empirical literature. This paper examines whether the Southern Border Plan, an immigration enforcement program implemented by the Mexican government in 2014, has curbed intentions of unauthorized migrants from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras to migrate to the United States. Combining surveys from Central American and Mexican deportees and using a DiD approach, I find that increased enforcement in Mexico decreases the likelihood of attempting repeated unauthorized crossings. The results indicate that in the short-run the cooperation between destination and transit countries could be effective in deterring undocumented migrants.
    Description: Zur Verbesserung der Zuwanderungskontrolle gab es in den vergangenen Jahren vermehrt Kooperationen zwischen Zielländern von Einwanderern und Transitstaaten. Die Frage, ob diese Maßnahmen nicht dokumentierte Migration erfolgreich reduzieren konnten, wurde bisher jedoch nicht empirisch analysiert. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht, ob der Southern Border Plan, ein durch die mexikanische Regierung im Jahr 2014 eigeführtes Programm zur Zuwanderungskontrolle, die Absichten von irregulären Migrantinnen und Migranten aus El Salvador, Guatemala und Honduras in Mexiko, in die Vereinigten Staaten weiterzureisen, reduziert hat. Mithilfe von Daten von mittelamerikanischen und mexikanischen abgeschobenen Migrantinnen und Migranten und unter Verwendung eines Differenzen-von-Differenzen-Ansatzes finde ich, dass eine erhöhte Kontrolle die Wahrscheinlichkeit eines erneuten versuchten irregulären Grenzübertritts der Migrantinnen und Migranten reduziert. Vor diesem Hintergrund scheint die Kooperation bei der Zuwanderungskontrolle zwischen Transit- und Zielland zumindest kurzfristig effektiv zu sein.
    Keywords: F22 ; K42 ; K37 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; immigration enforcement ; deportees ; Central American migrants ; unauthorized ; undocumented ; remigration ; transit countries
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-05-30
    Description: This paper offers estimates of the underreporting of income by selfemployed workers using the Spanish household surveys over the period 2006-2009. We replicate the well-known approach by Pissarides and Weber (J Public Econ 39(1):17-32, 1989) but extending its interpretation for admitting also the concealment of income by salary workers. Our results show that the reported income by self-employed has to be increased by about 25 % to obtain the level of income which would equal the level of underreporting by employees. Our estimates are robust to changes in specification, endogeneity and non-linearities.
    Keywords: D12 ; H26 ; O17 ; ddc:330 ; Underreporting ; Household surveys ; Food consumption ; Tax evasion
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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