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  • ddc:330  (25)
  • Competition
  • Entwicklungsländer
  • Heidelberg: Springer  (14)
  • Essen: RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung  (6)
  • Göttingen: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Research Training Group (RTG) 1666 - GlobalFood
  • Göttingen: Ibero-Amerika-Inst. für Wirtschaftsforschung
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-07
    Description: This paper explores the long-run effects of inflation on the dynamics of private sector bank credit and economic growth in Mexico over the period 1969 - 2011. With an ARDL-type model, the statistical results suggest that the availability of private sector bank credit in the economy exerts a positive impact on real GDP. In addition, inflation rates have contributed negatively to the increase in private credit, liquid liabilities, and financial development. A key outcome is that one percent increase in inflation is associated with a 0.07 % fall in long-run real rate of output through its effect on bank credit to the private sector. Another crucial finding is that policies of financial liberalization have helped stimulate economic growth. Reinforcing the literature on finance and growth, this study reaffirms that inflation rates are detrimental to long-run financial development and economic growth.
    Keywords: E31 ; G21 ; E44 ; O4 ; C22 ; ddc:330 ; Inflation ; Private sector bank credit ; Financial development ; Growth
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-12-07
    Description: Background: Opioid addiction is a worldwide problem. Agonist opioid treatment (AOT) is the most widespread and frequent pharmacotherapeutic approach. Methadone has been the most widely used AOT, but buprenorphine, a partial kappa-opiod agonist and a my-opiod antagonist, is fast gaining acceptance. The objective was to assess the budgetary impact in Spain of the introduction of buprenorphine-naloxone (B/N) combination. Methods: A budgetary impact model was developed to estimate healthcare costs of the addition of B/N combination to the therapeutic arsenal for treating opioid dependent patients, during a 3-year period under the National Health System perspective. Inputs for the model were obtained from the specialized scientific literature. Detailed information concerning resource consumption (drug cost, logistics, dispensing, medical, psychiatry and pharmacy supervision, counselling and laboratory test) was obtained from a local expert panel. Costs are expressed in euros (€, 2010). Results: The number of patients estimated to be prescribed B/N combination was 2,334; 2,993 and 3,589 in the first, second and third year respectively. Total budget is €85,766,129; €79,855,471 and €79,137,502 in the first, second and third year for the scenario without B/N combination. With B/N combination the total budget would be €86,589,210; €80,398,259 and €79,708,964 in the first, second and third year of the analyses. Incremental cost/ patient comparing the addition of the B/N combination to the scenario only with methadone is €10.58; €6.98 and €7.34 in the first, second and third year respectively. Conclusion: Addition of B/N combination would imply a maximum incremental yearly cost of €10.58 per patient compared to scenario only with methadone and would provide additional benefits.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Buprenorphine-naloxone, Methadone, budgetary impact, opioid dependence, Spain
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-24
    Description: This paper investigates to what extent international migration can be explained by climatic variations. A gravity model of migration augmented with average temperature and precipitation in the country of origin is estimated using a panel data set of 142 sending countries for the period 1995 to 2006. We find two primary results. First, temperature is positively correlated with migration. Second, stronger changes in precipitation are also associated with aligned, but small changes in migration. Both effects are robust to various model modifications. Furthermore, we present initial explorations into the channels relating climate changes with migration via agriculture and internal conflict.
    Keywords: F22 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; International migration ; Climate change ; Gravity model ; Panel data
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-05-30
    Description: This paper offers estimates of the underreporting of income by selfemployed workers using the Spanish household surveys over the period 2006-2009. We replicate the well-known approach by Pissarides and Weber (J Public Econ 39(1):17-32, 1989) but extending its interpretation for admitting also the concealment of income by salary workers. Our results show that the reported income by self-employed has to be increased by about 25 % to obtain the level of income which would equal the level of underreporting by employees. Our estimates are robust to changes in specification, endogeneity and non-linearities.
    Keywords: D12 ; H26 ; O17 ; ddc:330 ; Underreporting ; Household surveys ; Food consumption ; Tax evasion
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-05-30
    Description: In this study, we consider the role of a publicly owned platform and programme quality in the free-to-air broadcasting industry. We compare the equilibrium levels of advertising under private and mixed duopoly competition, and show that the connection between programme quality and advertising incentives is drastically different in each scenario. We also consider the welfare implications of our analysis and generate policy implications regarding the optimal level of government intervention in the broadcasting industry.
    Keywords: L11 ; L33 ; L82 ; M37 ; ddc:330 ; Quality ; Mixed duopoly ; Advertising ; Media
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-05-30
    Description: In this paper, we provide empirical evidence for the impact of disciplinary sanctions imposed on Spanish auditing firms and their engagement partners. The disciplinary sanctions resulted from external investigations, which revealed misapplications of auditing standards. In particular, we evaluate (a) the efficacy of the external supervisory board in identifying low-quality auditors and (b) the effectiveness of the disciplinary system in improving the quality of subsequent statutory audits performed by the sanctioned auditors.We employ two earnings management indicators as proxies for audit quality: loss avoidance through extraordinary items and abnormal accruals. And we compare these measures in the financial statements of client companies (auditees) audited by sanctioned and non-sanctioned auditors between 1995 and 2007. Our evidence is mixed. The results show that companies audited by Non-Big 4 sanctioned auditors in the pre-inspection period are less likely to avoid bottom-line losses. Additionally, we conclude that use of this earnings management tool decreases in the post-investigation period for all sanctioned auditors, whether Big 4 or Non-Big 4 firms. Contrary to our expectations, the enhancement performance on this measure of audit quality is observed only for smaller fines. The discretionary accrual approach to earnings management does not offer significant results, however. Therefore, the conclusions are not robust, and further investigation is needed. A feasible explanation for the elusive conclusion may be based on the strong incentives for private firms to avoid bottom-line losses for financing purposes and to manipulate earnings to minimize tax payments.
    Keywords: M42 ; M48 ; ddc:330 ; Auditing ; Quality assurance ; Audit quality ; Oversight ; Disciplinary systems ; Inspections ; Investigations ; Sanctions ; Earnings management ; Discretionary accruals
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-08-28
    Description: Research on the relationship between high-skilled migration and remittances has been limited by the lack of suitable microdata. We create a unique cross-country dataset by combining household surveys from five Sub-Saharan African countries that enables us to analyze the effect of migrants' education on their remittance behavior. Having comprehensive information on both ends of the migrant-origin household relationship and employing household fixed effects specifications that only use within-household variation for identification allows us to address the problem of unobserved heterogeneity across migrants' origin households. Our results reveal that migrants' education has no significant impact on the likelihood of sending remittances. Conditional on sending remittances, however, high-skilled migrants send significantly higher amounts of money to their households left behind. This effect holds for the sub-groups of internal migrants and migrants in non-OECD countries, while it vanishes for migrants in OECD destination countries once characteristics of the origin household are controlled for.
    Description: Auf Basis von Haushaltsbefragungen in fünf Ländern Sub-Sahara Afrikas untersuchen wir den Einfluss der Bildung von Migranten auf deren Rücküberweisungen an ihre im Heimatland verbliebenen Haushalte. Das Vorhandensein umfangreicher Informationen über die Migranten als auch über die Haushalte im Heimatland sowie die Verwendung von Haushalts-Fixed-Effects-Schätzungen erlauben es uns, das Problem unbeobachtbarer Heterogenität zwischen den Herkunftshaushalten zu adressieren. Unsere Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Bildung der Migranten keinen signifikanten Einfluss auf deren Wahrscheinlichkeit hat, Rücküberweisungen zu schicken. Gegeben, dass Rücküberweisungen gesendet werden, überweisen Migranten mit einem Universitätsabschluss jedoch signifikant höhere Beträge an ihre Herkunftshaushalte als geringer qualifizierte Migranten. Schätzungen für unterschiedliche Gruppen von Migranten zeigen, dass dieser Effekt für interne Migranten sowie für Migranten in Nicht-OECD-Ländern bestehen bleibt. Für Migranten in OECD-Ländern finden wir hingegen keinen signifikanten Einfluss des Bildungsniveaus auf deren Rücküberweisungen sobald Charakteristika des Haushaltes im Herkunftsland in den Modellen berücksichtigt werden.
    Keywords: F22 ; F24 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; migration ; remittances ; skill level ; brain drain ; Sub-Saharan Africa
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-08-28
    Description: [Einleitung ...] Vor diesem Hintergrund hat das MAIS eine Studie in Auftrag gegeben, um eine aktuelle Bestandsaufnahme der geringfügigen Beschäftigung in NRW durchzuführen. Dabei geht es einerseits darum zu überprüfen, ob sich die Situation im Vergleich zu den Berichtsergebnissen 2012 verändert hat. Hierbei stehen die Fragen im Vordergrund, welche Personen einem Minijob nachgehen und welche Firmen Minijobs anbieten, und aus welchen Beweggründen dies jeweils geschieht. Andererseits soll der Frage nachgegangen werden, wie sich die Beschäftigungssituation der geringfügig Beschäftigten seit 2012 verändert hat, vor allem hinsichtlich des gezahlten Lohns, der Einhaltung von Arbeitnehmerrechten und dem Übergang in sozialversicherungspflichtige Beschäftigung. Von besonderem Interesse in diesem Zusammenhang ist, ob die oben genannten veränderten Rahmenbedingungen sowie die ergriffenen Politikmaßnahmen einen Einfluss auf die Situation der geringfügig Beschäftigten gehabt haben. Auch wenn die vorliegende Studie hierzu keine kausale Evidenz liefern kann, gibt sie doch einige Hinweise, die diesbezügliche Rückschlüsse zulassen. Um die genannten Fragen zu beantworten, wurden im August/September 2016 - analog zu den Befragungen im Jahr 2012 - zwei NRW-weite Befragungen durchgeführt, eine unter geringfügig Beschäftigten und eine unter Arbeitgebern, die geringfügige Beschäftigungsverhältnisse aufweisen. Die Ergebnisse dieser Befragungen sind in der vorliegenden Studie enthalten, die wie folgt aufgebaut ist. Das folgende Kapitel gibt einen kurzen Überblick über die rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen der geringfügigen Beschäftigung sowie die derzeitige Situation bei Minijobs, sowohl in Deutschland als auch in NRW. Hierbei werden aktuelle Entwicklungen anhand entsprechender Daten aufgezeigt und die zum Thema existierende Literatur diskutiert. Kapitel 3 enthält Details zur Methodik der Befragung und diskutiert deren Repräsentativität. In Kapitel 4 und 5 werden die Ergebnisse der Befragungen von Arbeitnehmern und Arbeitgebern präsentiert. Das abschließende Kapitel 6 fasst die wichtigsten Ergebnisse zusammen und zieht wirtschaftspolitische Schlussfolgerungen.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Atypische Beschäftigung ; Mindestlohn ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Vergleich ; Nordrhein-Westfalen ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-05-10
    Description: Immigration enforcement cooperation between final destination and transit countries has increased in the last decades. However, the question whether these measures are successful in deterring undocumented migrants has not been previously explored by the empirical literature. This paper examines whether the Southern Border Plan, an immigration enforcement program implemented by the Mexican government in 2014, has curbed intentions of unauthorized migrants from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras to migrate to the United States. Combining surveys from Central American and Mexican deportees and using a DiD approach, I find that increased enforcement in Mexico decreases the likelihood of attempting repeated unauthorized crossings. The results indicate that in the short-run the cooperation between destination and transit countries could be effective in deterring undocumented migrants.
    Description: Zur Verbesserung der Zuwanderungskontrolle gab es in den vergangenen Jahren vermehrt Kooperationen zwischen Zielländern von Einwanderern und Transitstaaten. Die Frage, ob diese Maßnahmen nicht dokumentierte Migration erfolgreich reduzieren konnten, wurde bisher jedoch nicht empirisch analysiert. Die vorliegende Studie untersucht, ob der Southern Border Plan, ein durch die mexikanische Regierung im Jahr 2014 eigeführtes Programm zur Zuwanderungskontrolle, die Absichten von irregulären Migrantinnen und Migranten aus El Salvador, Guatemala und Honduras in Mexiko, in die Vereinigten Staaten weiterzureisen, reduziert hat. Mithilfe von Daten von mittelamerikanischen und mexikanischen abgeschobenen Migrantinnen und Migranten und unter Verwendung eines Differenzen-von-Differenzen-Ansatzes finde ich, dass eine erhöhte Kontrolle die Wahrscheinlichkeit eines erneuten versuchten irregulären Grenzübertritts der Migrantinnen und Migranten reduziert. Vor diesem Hintergrund scheint die Kooperation bei der Zuwanderungskontrolle zwischen Transit- und Zielland zumindest kurzfristig effektiv zu sein.
    Keywords: F22 ; K42 ; K37 ; O15 ; ddc:330 ; immigration enforcement ; deportees ; Central American migrants ; unauthorized ; undocumented ; remigration ; transit countries
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-04-10
    Description: This paper evaluates the impact of the structural and cohesion funds received by Spain in the period 2007-2013. The analysis is performed with a detailed computable general equilibrium (CGE) model calibrated with a SAM for Spain in 2005 elaborated by the authors, which contains highly detailed information on capital goods and tax rates. The aim of this paper is to quantify the short-run effects of the EU funds in the Spanish economy, which can help economic recovery. Additionally, it is evaluated to what extent these short-run effects may be over- or underestimated due to the closure rule used in this kind of models (neoclassical or Keynesian). The closure determines the endogenous variables in the market clearance conditions, and they affect the results of shocks in final demand. The conclusions show that neoclassical closure, used in previous CGE studies done for Spain, underestimates the impact they have on employment and GDP and captures a fictitious shock in private investment. In this case, employment and real GDP do not almost change, while under Keynesian rule they increase in 1.2 and 0.68%, respectively. These results invalidate some of the estimates derived from previous studies and suggest that the best option to quantify the likely positive short-run effects of raising public investment is only captured through Keynesian closure.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Structural funds ; Computable general equilibrium model ; Investment goods ; Closure rules
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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