Data on the carbonate system of the Northwestern Indian Ocean obtained on a cruise of F.S. Meteor during SW monsoon in July/August 1995 were compared with those of George et al. [George, M.D., Kumar, M.D., Naqvi, S.W.A., Banerjee, S., Narvekar, P.V., de Sousa, S.N., Jayakumar, D.A., 1994. A study of the carbon dioxide system in the northern Indian Ocean during premonsoon. Mar. Chem. 47, 243–254] collected during intermonsoon. In general, deep water values agreed well between the two expeditions. Surface waters, however, showed a substantial increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) in the coastal regions due to strong upwelling in the SW monsoon. This was also accompanied by very high CO2 partial pressures in surface waters. The north–south gradients in vertical profiles of the measured parameters in the Arabian Sea are discussed by comparing profiles from the oligotrophic equatorial region with those from the highly productive central Arabian Sea. The effect of denitrification on regenerated CT and AT is minor, with contributions of 〈9 and 〈8 μmol kg−1, respectively, to the total amount regenerated also utilizing oxygen. The dissolution of biogenic carbonates is discussed; different approaches to define the depth, where the dissolution starts (lysocline(s), carbonate critical depth (CCrD)), are compared together with the calculation of saturation depth from carbonate concentrations. It is shown, that small differences in measured CT and AT (found between our data and those measured during GEOSECS) and different calculation approaches to the CO2 system (different dissociation constants for species involved and taking into account phosphate and silicate concentrations) can produce pronounced differences in the calculated saturation depths. However, CT and AT data suggest substantial dissolution of biogenic carbonate in the water column even above the calcite lysocline, irrespective of the procedures followed to calculate this horizon.