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  • Copernicus  (4)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-17
    Description: Temperature and ozone changes in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) are important components and sensitive indicators of climate change. In this paper, variability and trends of temperature and ozone in the UTLS were investigated for the period 2002–2017 using the high quality, high vertical resolution GPS RO data, improved merged satellite data sets (SWOOSH and C3S) and reanalysis data sets (including the newest ERA5, MERRA2 and ERA-Interim). All three reanalyses show good agreement with the GPS RO measurements in absolute values, annual cycle as well as interannual variabilities of temperature. However, relatively large biases exist for the period 2002–2006, which reveals an evident discontinuity of temperature time series in reanalyses. Based on the multiple linear regression methods, a significant warming of 0.2–0.3 K/decade is found in most areas of the troposphere with stronger increase of 0.4–0.5 K/decade in mid-latitudes of both hemispheres. In contrast, the stratospheric temperature decreases at a rate of 0.1–0.3 K/decade except that in the lower most stratosphere (100–50 hPa) in the tropics and parts of mid-latitude in the Northern Hemisphere (NH). ERA5 shows improved quality compared with ERA-Interim and performs the best agreement with the GPS RO data for the recent trends of temperature. Similar with temperature, reanalyses ozone are also affected by the change of assimilated observations and methods. Negative trends of ozone are found in NH at 150–100 hPa while positive trends are evident in the tropical lower stratosphere. Asymmetric trends of ozone can be found for both hemispheres in the middle stratosphere, with significant ozone decrease in NH mid-latitudes and increase of ozone in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) mid-latitudes. According to model simulations, the temperature increase in the troposphere as well as ozone decrease in the NH stratosphere could be mainly connected to the increase of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and subsequent changes of atmospheric circulations.
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7375
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-07-27
    Description: Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere with important implications not only for the Earth’s radiation and energy budget but also for various chemical, physical and dynamical processes in the stratosphere. The Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) Radio Occultation (RO) dataset from 2007 through 2013 is used for the first time to study the distribution and variability water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The COSMIC data are compared to the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) data, and to two global reanalyses: The Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Application (MERRA) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); and, the latest reanalysis of the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecast (ECMWF), the ERA-Interim. The MLS data have been assimilated into the MERRA, whereas the COSMIC data are used for the ERA-Interim. As a result, the MERRA agrees well with the MLS data and so does the ERA-Interim with the COSMIC data. While the monthly zonal mean distributions of water vapor from the four datasets show good agreements in northern mid-latitudes, large discrepancies exist in high southern latitudes and tropics. The MERRA shows overall a consistent seasonal cycle with MLS, but has too strong winter dehydration over the Antarctic, and is very weak in the interannual variations. The ERA-Interim fails to properly represent the winter dehydration over the Antarctic, and shows an unrealistic seasonal cycle in the tropical upper troposphere. The COSMIC data shows a good agreement with the MLS data except for the tropical "taper recorder" signal, where the COSMIC data suggest a faster upward motion than the MLS data. The COSMIC data are able to represent the moisture variabilities associated with the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation.
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8610
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-06-22
    Description: This paper describes the recommended solar forcing dataset for CMIP6 and highlights changes with respect to CMIP5. The solar forcing is provided for radiative properties, namely total solar irradiance (TSI), solar spectral irradiance (SSI), and the F10.7 index as well as particle forcing, including geomagnetic indices Ap and Kp, and ionization rates to account for effects of solar protons, electrons, and galactic cosmic rays. This is the first time that a recommendation for solar-driven particle forcing has been provided for a CMIP exercise. The solar forcing datasets are provided at daily and monthly resolution separately for the CMIP6 preindustrial control, historical (1850–2014), and future (2015–2300) simulations. For the preindustrial control simulation, both constant and time-varying solar forcing components are provided, with the latter including variability on 11-year and shorter timescales but no long-term changes. For the future, we provide a realistic scenario of what solar behavior could be, as well as an additional extreme Maunder-minimum-like sensitivity scenario. This paper describes the forcing datasets and also provides detailed recommendations as to their implementation in current climate models.For the historical simulations, the TSI and SSI time series are defined as the average of two solar irradiance models that are adapted to CMIP6 needs: an empirical one (NRLTSI2–NRLSSI2) and a semi-empirical one (SATIRE). A new and lower TSI value is recommended: the contemporary solar-cycle average is now 1361.0Wm−2. The slight negative trend in TSI over the three most recent solar cycles in the CMIP6 dataset leads to only a small global radiative forcing of −0.04Wm−2. In the 200–400nm wavelength range, which is important for ozone photochemistry, the CMIP6 solar forcing dataset shows a larger solar-cycle variability contribution to TSI than in CMIP5 (50% compared to 35%).We compare the climatic effects of the CMIP6 solar forcing dataset to its CMIP5 predecessor by using time-slice experiments of two chemistry–climate models and a reference radiative transfer model. The differences in the long-term mean SSI in the CMIP6 dataset, compared to CMIP5, impact on climatological stratospheric conditions (lower shortwave heating rates of −0.35Kday−1 at the stratopause), cooler stratospheric temperatures (−1.5K in the upper stratosphere), lower ozone abundances in the lower stratosphere (−3%), and higher ozone abundances (+1.5% in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere). Between the maximum and minimum phases of the 11-year solar cycle, there is an increase in shortwave heating rates (+0.2Kday−1 at the stratopause), temperatures ( ∼ 1K at the stratopause), and ozone (+2.5% in the upper stratosphere) in the tropical upper stratosphere using the CMIP6 forcing dataset. This solar-cycle response is slightly larger, but not statistically significantly different from that for the CMIP5 forcing dataset.CMIP6 models with a well-resolved shortwave radiation scheme are encouraged to prescribe SSI changes and include solar-induced stratospheric ozone variations, in order to better represent solar climate variability compared to models that only prescribe TSI and/or exclude the solar-ozone response. We show that monthly-mean solar-induced ozone variations are implicitly included in the SPARC/CCMI CMIP6 Ozone Database for historical simulations, which is derived from transient chemistry–climate model simulations and has been developed for climate models that do not calculate ozone interactively. CMIP6 models without chemistry that perform a preindustrial control simulation with time-varying solar forcing will need to use a modified version of the SPARC/CCMI Ozone Database that includes solar variability. CMIP6 models with interactive chemistry are also encouraged to use the particle forcing datasets, which will allow the potential long-term effects of particles to be addressed for the first time. The consideration of particle forcing has been shown to significantly improve the representation of reactive nitrogen and ozone variability in the polar middle atmosphere, eventually resulting in further improvements in the representation of solar climate variability in global models.
    Print ISSN: 1991-959X
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-9603
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-05-20
    Description: Temperature and ozone changes in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) are important components of climate change. In this paper, variability and trends of temperature and ozone in the UTLS are investigated for the period 2002–2017 using high-quality, high vertical resolution Global Navigation Satellite System radio occultation (GNSS RO) data and improved merged satellite data sets. As part of the Stratosphere-troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate (SPARC) Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (S-RIP), three reanalysis data sets, including the ERA-I, MERRA2 and the recently released ERA5, are evaluated for their representation of temperature and ozone in the UTLS. The recent temperature and ozone trends are updated with a multiple linear regression (MLR) method and related to sea surface temperature (SST) changes based on model simulations made with NCAR's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). All reanalysis temperatures show good agreement with the GNSS RO measurements in both absolute value and annual cycle. Interannual variations in temperature related to Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) processes are well represented by all reanalyses. However, evident biases can be seen in reanalyses for the linear trends of temperature since they are affected by discontinuities in assimilated observations and methods. Such biases can be corrected and the estimated trends can be significantly improved. ERA5 is significantly improved compared to ERA-I and shows the best agreement with the GNSS RO temperature. The MLR results indicate a significant warming of 0.2–0.3 K per decade in most areas of the troposphere, with a stronger increase of 0.4–0.5 K per decade at midlatitudes of both hemispheres. In contrast, the stratospheric temperature decreases at a rate of 0.1–0.3 K per decade, which is most significant in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). Positive temperature trends of 0.1–0.3 K per decade are seen in the tropical lower stratosphere (100–50 hPa). Negative trends of ozone are found in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) at 150–50 hPa, while positive trends are evident in the tropical lower stratosphere. Asymmetric trends of ozone can be found in the midlatitudes of two hemispheres in the middle stratosphere, with significant ozone decrease in the NH and increase in ozone in the SH. Large biases exist in reanalyses, and it is still challenging to do trend analysis based on reanalysis ozone data. According to single-factor-controlled model simulations with WACCM, the temperature increase in the troposphere and the ozone decrease in the NH stratosphere are mainly connected to the increase in SST and subsequent changes of atmospheric circulations. Both the increase in SSTs and the decrease in ozone in the NH contribute to the temperature decrease in the NH stratosphere. The increase in temperature in the lower stratospheric tropics may be related to an increase in ozone in that region, while warming SSTs contribute to a cooling in that area.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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