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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2020-01-03
    Description: Coherent downstream oscillations of the magnetic field in shocks are produced due to the coherent ion gyration and quasiperiodic variations of the ion pressure. The amplitude and the positions of the pressure maxima and minima depend on the cross-shock potential and upstream ion temperature. Two critical cross-shock potentials are defined: the critical gyration potential (CGP), which separates the cases of increase or decrease in the component of the velocity of the distribution center along the shock normal, and the critical reflection potential (CRP), above which ion reflection becomes significant. In a weak, very low upstream kinetic-to-magnetic pressure ratio, β, the shocks' CRP exceeds the CGP. For potentials below the CGP, the first downstream maximum of the magnetic field is shifted farther downstream and is larger than the second maximum. For higher potentials, the first maximum occurs just behind the ramp and is lower than the second maximum. With the increase in the upstream temperature, the CGP exceeds the CRP. For potentials below the CRP, the effects of ion reflection are negligible and the shock profile is similar to that of very low-β shocks. If the potential exceeds the CRP, ion reflection is significant, the magnetic field increase toward the overshoot becomes steeper, and the largest peak occurs at the downstream edge of the ramp.
    Print ISSN: 0992-7689
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0576
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2020-01-29
    Description: Energetic oxygen ions (1–40 keV) observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) satellites at the duskside magnetopause boundary layer during phase 1 are investigated. There are 57 duskside magnetopause crossing events identified during intense substorms (AE〉500 nT). These 57 events of energetic O+ at the duskside magnetopause include 26 events during the expansion phase and 31 events during the recovery phase of intense substorms. It is found that the O+ density in the duskside magnetopause boundary layer during the recovery phase (0.081 cm−3) is larger than that during the expansion phase (0.069 cm−3). The 26 events of energetic O+ ions at the duskside magnetopause during intense substorm expansion phase are all under the southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). There are only seven events under northward IMF, and they all occurred during the intense substorm recovery phase. The density of energetic O+ at the duskside magnetopause ranges from 0.007 to 0.599 cm−3. The maximum density of O+ occurred during the intense substorm recovery phase and under southward IMF. When the IMF is southward, the O+ density shows an exponential increase with the IMF Bz absolute value. Meanwhile, the O+/H+ density ratio shows an exponential growth with the IMF By. These results agree with previous studies in the near-Earth magnetosphere during intense substorm. It is suggested that O+ abundance in the duskside magnetopause boundary layer has a close relation to O+ variations in the near-Earth magnetosphere during intense substorms.
    Print ISSN: 0992-7689
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0576
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2020-02-05
    Description: We introduce ACCESS-OM2, a new version of the ocean–sea ice model of the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator. ACCESS-OM2 is driven by a prescribed atmosphere (JRA55-do) but has been designed to form the ocean–sea ice component of the fully coupled (atmosphere–land–ocean–sea ice) ACCESS-CM2 model. Importantly, the model is available at three different horizontal resolutions: a coarse resolution (nominally 1∘ horizontal grid spacing), an eddy-permitting resolution (nominally 0.25∘), and an eddy-rich resolution (0.1∘ with 75 vertical levels); the eddy-rich model is designed to be incorporated into the Bluelink operational ocean prediction and reanalysis system. The different resolutions have been developed simultaneously, both to allow for testing at lower resolutions and to permit comparison across resolutions. In this paper, the model is introduced and the individual components are documented. The model performance is evaluated across the three different resolutions, highlighting the relative advantages and disadvantages of running ocean–sea ice models at higher resolution. We find that higher resolution is an advantage in resolving flow through small straits, the structure of western boundary currents, and the abyssal overturning cell but that there is scope for improvements in sub-grid-scale parameterizations at the highest resolution.
    Print ISSN: 1991-959X
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-9603
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2020-03-26
    Description: The Nimbus 7 Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) instrument operated from 25 October 1978 through 28 May 1979. This note focuses on its Version 6 (V6) data and indications of ozone loss in the lower stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere subpolar region during the last week of October 1978. We provide profiles and maps that show V6 ozone values of only 2 to 3 ppmv at 46 hPa within the edge of the polar vortex near 60∘ S from late October through mid-November 1978. There are also low values of V6 nitric acid (∼3 to 6 ppbv) and nitrogen dioxide (
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2020-02-27
    Description: We present a new global land-based daily precipitation dataset from 1950 using an interpolated network of in situ data called Rainfall Estimates on a Gridded Network – REGEN. We merged multiple archives of in situ data including two of the largest archives, the Global Historical Climatology Network – Daily (GHCN-Daily) hosted by National Centres of Environmental Information (NCEI), USA, and one hosted by the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) operated by Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD). This resulted in an unprecedented station density compared to existing datasets. The station time series were quality-controlled using strict criteria and flagged values were removed. Remaining values were interpolated to create area-average estimates of daily precipitation for global land areas on a 1∘ × 1∘ latitude–longitude resolution. Besides the daily precipitation amounts, fields of standard deviation, kriging error and number of stations are also provided. We also provide a quality mask based on these uncertainty measures. For those interested in a dataset with lower station network variability we also provide a related dataset based on a network of long-term stations which interpolates stations with a record length of at least 40 years. The REGEN datasets are expected to contribute to the advancement of hydrological science and practice by facilitating studies aiming to understand changes and variability in several aspects of daily precipitation distributions, extremes and measures of hydrological intensity. Here we document the development of the dataset and guidelines for best practices for users with regards to the two datasets.
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2020-03-23
    Description: The Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) retrievals over urban regions have not been validated systematically, even though MOPITT observations are widely used to study CO over urban regions. Here we compare MOPITT products over urban and non-urban regions with aircraft measurements from the Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ – 2011–2014), Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds, and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS – 2013), Air Chemistry Research In Asia (ARIAs – 2016), A-FORCE (2009, 2013), and Korea United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ – 2016) campaigns. In general, MOPITT agrees reasonably well with the in situ profiles, over both urban and non-urban regions. Version 8 multispectral product (V8J) biases vary from −0.7 % to 0.0 % and version 8 thermal-infrared product (TIR) biases vary from 2.0 % to 3.5 %. The evaluation statistics of MOPITT V8J and V8T over non-urban regions are better than those over urban regions with smaller biases and higher correlation coefficients. We find that the agreement of MOPITT V8J and V8T with aircraft measurements at high CO concentrations is not as good as that at low CO concentrations, although CO variability may tend to exaggerate retrieval biases in heavily polluted scenes. We test the sensitivities of the agreements between MOPITT and in situ profiles to assumptions and data filters applied during the comparisons of MOPITT retrievals and in situ profiles. The results at the surface layer are insensitive to the model-based profile extension (required due to aircraft altitude limitations), whereas the results at levels with limited aircraft observations (e.g., the 600 hPa layer) are more sensitive to the model-based profile extension. The results are insensitive to the maximum allowed time difference criterion for co-location (12, 6, 3, and 1 h) and are generally insensitive to the radius for co-location, except for the case where the radius is small (25 km), and hence few MOPITT retrievals are included in the comparison. Daytime MOPITT products have smaller overall biases than nighttime MOPITT products when comparing both MOPITT daytime and nighttime retrievals to the daytime aircraft observations. However, it would be premature to draw conclusions on the performance of MOPITT nighttime retrievals without nighttime aircraft observations. Applying signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) filters does not necessarily improve the overall agreement between MOPITT retrievals and in situ profiles, likely due to the reduced number of MOPITT retrievals for comparison. Comparisons of MOPITT retrievals and in situ profiles over complex urban or polluted regimes are inherently challenging due to spatial and temporal variabilities of CO within MOPITT retrieval pixels (i.e., footprints). We demonstrate that some of the errors are due to CO representativeness with these sensitivity tests, but further quantification of representativeness errors due to CO variability within the MOPITT footprint will require future work.
    Print ISSN: 1867-1381
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8548
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2020-03-18
    Description: Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ammonia (NH3) from anthropogenic and biogenic emissions are central contributors to particulate matter (PM) concentrations worldwide. The response of PM to changes in the emissions of both compounds is typically studied on a case-by-case basis, owing in part to the complex thermodynamic interactions of these aerosol precursors with other PM constituents. Here we present a simple but thermodynamically consistent approach that expresses the chemical domains of sensitivity of aerosol particulate matter to NH3 and HNO3 availability in terms of aerosol pH and liquid water content. From our analysis, four policy-relevant regimes emerge in terms of sensitivity: (i) NH3 sensitive, (ii) HNO3 sensitive, (iii) NH3 and HNO3 sensitive, and (iv) insensitive to NH3 or HNO3. For all regimes, the PM remains sensitive to nonvolatile precursors, such as nonvolatile cations and sulfate. When this framework is applied to ambient measurements or predictions of PM and gaseous precursors, the “chemical regime” of PM sensitivity to NH3 and HNO3 availability is directly determined. The use of these regimes allows for novel insights, and this framework is an important tool to evaluate chemical transport models. With this extended understanding, aerosol pH and associated liquid water content naturally emerge as previously ignored state parameters that drive PM formation.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2020-04-14
    Description: Ferruginous lacustrine systems, such as Lake Towuti, Indonesia, are characterized by a specific type of phosphorus cycling in which hydrous ferric iron (oxyhydr)oxides trap and precipitate phosphorus to the sediment, which reduces its bioavailability in the water column and thereby restricts primary production. The oceans were also ferruginous during the Archean, thus understanding the dynamics of phosphorus in modern-day ferruginous analogues may shed light on the marine biogeochemical cycling that dominated much of Earth's history. Here we report the presence of large crystals (〉5 mm) and nodules (〉5 cm) of vivianite – a ferrous iron phosphate – in sediment cores from Lake Towuti and address the processes of vivianite formation, phosphorus retention by iron and the related mineral transformations during early diagenesis in ferruginous sediments. Core scan imaging, together with analyses of bulk sediment and pore water geochemistry, document a 30 m long interval consisting of sideritic and non-sideritic clayey beds and diatomaceous oozes containing vivianites. High-resolution imaging of vivianite revealed continuous growth of crystals from tabular to rosette habits that eventually form large (up to 7 cm) vivianite nodules in the sediment. Mineral inclusions like millerite and siderite reflect diagenetic mineral formation antecedent to the one of vivianite that is related to microbial reduction of iron and sulfate. Together with the pore water profiles, these data suggest that the precipitation of millerite, siderite and vivianite in soft ferruginous sediments stems from the progressive consumption of dissolved terminal electron acceptors and the typical evolution of pore water geochemistry during diagenesis. Based on solute concentrations and modeled mineral saturation indices, we inferred vivianite formation to initiate around 20 m depth in the sediment. Negative δ56Fe values of vivianite indicated incorporation of kinetically fractionated light Fe2+ into the crystals, likely derived from active reduction and dissolution of ferric oxides and transient ferrous phases during early diagenesis. The size and growth history of the nodules indicate that, after formation, continued growth of vivianite crystals constitutes a sink for P during burial, resulting in long-term P sequestration in ferruginous sediment.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2020-05-04
    Description: The capability of ambient particles to generate in vivo reactive oxygen species (ROS), called oxidative potential (OP), is a potential metric for evaluating the health effects of particulate matter (PM) and is supported by several recent epidemiological investigations. Studies using various types of OP assays differ in their sensitivities to varying PM chemical components. In this study, we systematically compared two health-relevant acellular OP assays that track the depletion of antioxidants or reductant surrogates: (i) the synthetic respiratory-tract lining fluid (RTLF) assay that tracks the depletion of ascorbic acid (AA) and glutathione (GSH) and (ii) the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay that tracks the depletion of DTT. Yearlong daily samples were collected at an urban site in Atlanta, GA (Jefferson Street), during 2017, and both DTT and RTLF assays were performed to measure the OP of water-soluble PM2.5 components. PM2.5 mass and major chemical components, including metals, ions, and organic and elemental carbon were also analyzed. Correlation analysis found that OP as measured by the DTT and AA depletion (OPDTT and OPAA, respectively) were correlated with both organics and some water-soluble metal species, whereas that from the GSH depletion (OPGSH) was exclusively sensitive to water-soluble Cu. These OP assays were moderately correlated with each other due to the common contribution from metal ions. OPDTT and OPAA were moderately correlated with PM2.5 mass with Pearson's r=0.55 and 0.56, respectively, whereas OPGSH exhibited a lower correlation (r=0.24). There was little seasonal variation in the OP levels for all assays due to the weak seasonality of OP-associated species. Multivariate linear regression models were developed to predict OP measures from the particle composition data. Variability in OPDTT and OPAA were not only attributed to the concentrations of metal ions (mainly Fe and Cu) and organic compounds but also to antagonistic metal–organic and metal–metal interactions. OPGSH was sensitive to the change in water-soluble Cu and brown carbon (BrC), a proxy for ambient humic-like substances.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-05-27
    Description: The Neogene and Quaternary are characterized by enormous changes in global climate and environments, including global cooling and the establishment of northern high-latitude glaciers. These changes reshaped global ecosystems, including the emergence of tropical dry forests and savannahs that are found in Africa today, which in turn may have influenced the evolution of humans and their ancestors. However, despite decades of research we lack long, continuous, well-resolved records of tropical climate, ecosystem changes, and surface processes necessary to understand their interactions and influences on evolutionary processes. Lake Tanganyika, Africa, contains the most continuous, long continental climate record from the mid-Miocene (∼10 Ma) to the present anywhere in the tropics and has long been recognized as a top-priority site for scientific drilling. The lake is surrounded by the Miombo woodlands, part of the largest dry tropical biome on Earth. Lake Tanganyika also harbors incredibly diverse endemic biota and an entirely unexplored deep microbial biosphere, and it provides textbook examples of rift segmentation, fault behavior, and associated surface processes. To evaluate the interdisciplinary scientific opportunities that an ICDP drilling program at Lake Tanganyika could offer, more than 70 scientists representing 12 countries and a variety of scientific disciplines met in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in June 2019. The team developed key research objectives in basin evolution, source-to-sink sedimentology, organismal evolution, geomicrobiology, paleoclimatology, paleolimnology, terrestrial paleoecology, paleoanthropology, and geochronology to be addressed through scientific drilling on Lake Tanganyika. They also identified drilling targets and strategies, logistical challenges, and education and capacity building programs to be carried out through the project. Participants concluded that a drilling program at Lake Tanganyika would produce the first continuous Miocene–present record from the tropics, transforming our understanding of global environmental change, the environmental context of human origins in Africa, and providing a detailed window into the dynamics, tempo and mode of biological diversification and adaptive radiations.
    Print ISSN: 1816-8957
    Electronic ISSN: 1816-3459
    Topics: Geosciences
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