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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-05-14
    Description: Three naturally intact wetland systems (swamps) were characterized based on sediment cores, analysis of surface water, groundwater and porewater stable isotopes. These swamps are classified as temperate highland peat swamps on sandstone (THPSS) and in Australia they are listed as threatened ecological communities. This study is the first application of the stable isotope direct vapour equilibration method in a wetland, enabling quantification of the contributions of evaporation, rainfall and groundwater to swamp water balance. This technique enables understanding of the depth of evaporative losses and the relative importance of groundwater flow within the swamp environment without the need for intrusive piezometer installation at multiple locations and depths. Additional advantages of the stable isotope direct vapour equilibration technique include detailed spatial and vertical depth profiles of δ18O and δ2H, with good accuracy comparable to the porewater compression technique. Depletion of δ18O and δ2H in porewater with increasing depth (to around 40–60cm depth) was observed in two swamps, but remained uniform with depth in the third swamp. Within the upper surficial zone, the measurements respond to seasonal trends and are subject to evaporation in the capillary zone. Below this depth the pore water δ18O and δ2H signature approaches that of groundwater indicating lateral groundwater contribution. Significant differences were found in stable pore water isotopes for samples collected after dry weather period compared to wet periods where recharge of depleted rainfall was apparent. The organic rich soil in the upper 40–60cm retains significant saturation following precipitation events and maintains moisture necessary for ecosystem functioning. An important finding for wetland and ecosystem response to changing groundwater conditions (and potential ground movement) are the observations that basal sands underlay the swamps, allowing relatively rapid drainage at the base of the swamp and interaction with lateral groundwater contribution. Based on the novel stable isotope direct vapour equilibration analysis of swamp sediment, our study identified the following important processes: rapid infiltration of rainfall to the water table with longer retention of moisture in the upper 40–60cm and lateral groundwater flow contribution at the base. This study also found, that evaporation estimated using stable isotope direct vapour equilibration method is more realistic compared to reference evapotranspiration (ET). Importantly, if swamp discharge data were available in combination with pore water isotope profiles, an appropriate transpiration could be determined for these swamps. Based on the results, the groundwater contribution to the swamp is a significant component of the water balance during dry period. Our methods could complement other monitoring studies and numerical water balance models to improve prediction of the hydrological response of the swamp to changes in water conditions due to natural or anthropogenic influences.
    Print ISSN: 1812-2108
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-2116
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-10-01
    Description: This study suggests that cold-ice processes may be more widespread even within temperate glacial systems, than previously assumed. We present the first direct observations of cold-ice at the snout of the temperate glacier Midtdalsbreen an outlet of the Hardangerjøkulen icefield (Norway) from 43 line-kilometres of ground penetrating radar data. Results show a 40m-wide cold-ice zone within the majority of the glacier snout, where ice thickness is
    Print ISSN: 1994-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1994-0440
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-07-09
    Description: It has been widely believed that Northeast (NE) Siberia remained ice-free during most Pleistocene Northern Hemisphere (NH) glaciations, while ice sheets extended gradually across North America and Northwest (NW) Eurasia. However, recent fieldwork has provided robust evidence of ice sheets occupying the shallow continental shelf of the East Siberian Sea during several Pleistocene glaciations. The debate surrounding the existence and history of this enigmatic NE Siberian ice sheet highlights fundamental gaps in our current understanding of the mechanisms of glacial climate evolution. Here, we combine climate and ice sheet simulations to demonstrate how ice-vegetation-atmosphere-ocean dynamics can lead to two ice sheet configurations: the well-known Laurentide-Eurasian configuration with large ice sheets over North America and NW Eurasia, and a circum-Arctic configuration with large ice sheets over NE Siberia and the Canadian Rockies. Compared to the Laurentide-Eurasian configuration, formation of the circum-Arctic configuration can occur with an atmospheric stationary wave pattern similar to today's. Once the circum-Arctic configuration is established, it amplifies atmospheric stationary waves, leading to surface warming in the North Pacific, ablation of the NE Siberian ice sheet, and ultimately a swing to the Laurentide-Eurasian configuration. Our simulations highlight the complexity of glacial climates, and may hint towards potential mechanisms for interglacial-glacial transitions.
    Print ISSN: 1814-9340
    Electronic ISSN: 1814-9359
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-07-21
    Description: Two approaches to ice-sheet modeling are available. Analytical modeling is the traditional approach (Van der Veen, 2016). It solves the force (momentum), mass, and energy balances to obtain three-dimensional solutions over time, beginning with the Navier–Stokes equations for the force balance. Geometrical modeling employs simple geometry to solve the force and mass balance in one dimension along ice flow (Hughes, 2012a). It is useful primarily to provide the first-order physical basis of ice-sheet modeling for students with little background in mathematics. The geometric approach uses changes in ice-bed coupling along flow to calculate changes in ice elevation and thickness, using a floating fraction ϕ along a flow line or flow band, where ϕ = 0 for sheet flow, 0 〈 ϕ 〈 1 for stream flow, and ϕ = 1 for shelf flow. An attempt is made to reconcile the two approaches.
    Print ISSN: 1994-0416
    Electronic ISSN: 1994-0424
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-03-12
    Description: Organosulfates are secondary organic aerosol (SOA) products that form from reactions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), such as isoprene, in the presence of sulfate that is primarily emitted by fossil fuel combustion. This study examines the anthropogenic influence on biogenic organosulfate formation at an urban site in Atlanta, Georgia (GA) in the southeastern United States (US). Organosulfates were analyzed in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) collected during August 2015 in Atlanta using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and high-resolution time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometry. By their MS/MS response, 32 major organosulfate species were identified, selected species were quantified, and other species were semi-quantified using surrogate standards. Organosulfates accounted for 16.5 % of PM2.5 organic carbon (OC). Isoprene-derived organosulfates were the most abundant, dominated by methyltetrol sulfate which accounted for 12.6 % of PM2.5 OC. Together, the isoprene-derived organosulfates accounted for the majority of the isoprene-derived SOA that had been previously observed in Atlanta, but had not been identified at the molecular level. Other major species included seven monoterpene-derived organosulfates, five diesel and/or biodiesel-derived organosulfates, and three new organosulfates that are also expected to derive from isoprene. Organosulfate species and concentrations in Atlanta were compared to those in a rural forested site in Centreville, Alabama (AL) during summer 2013, which were also dominated by isoprene-derived organosulfates. In Atlanta, isoprene-derived organosulfate concentrations were 2–6 times higher and accounted for twice as much OC. The greatest enhancement in concentration was observed for 2-methylglyceric acid sulfate whose formation is enhanced in the presence of nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2; NOx) and is a tracer for isoprene high-NOx SOA. The isoprene-derived organosulfates indicated a stronger influence of NOx in Atlanta compared to Centreville. Overall, these results suggest that SOA in the southeastern US can be reduced by controlling NOx and SO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion. This study gives insights into the major organosulfate species that should be targets for future measurements in urban environments and standard development.
    Print ISSN: 1680-7316
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7324
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-03-15
    Description: Tides and tidal mixing fronts are of fundamental importance to understanding shelf sea dynamics and ecosystems. Ocean gliders enable the observation of fronts and tide-dominated flows at high resolution. We use dive-average currents from a 2-month (12 October–2 December 2013) glider deployment along a zonal hydrographic section in the north-western North Sea to accurately determine M2 and S2 tidal velocities. The results of the glider-based method agree well with tidal velocities measured by current meters and with velocities extracted from the TPXO tide model. The method enhances the utility of gliders as an ocean-observing platform, particularly in regions where tide models are known to be limited. We then use the glider-derived tidal velocities to investigate tidal controls on the location of a front repeatedly observed by the glider. The front moves offshore at a rate of 0.51kmday−1. During the first part of the deployment (from mid-October until mid-November), results of a one-dimensional model suggest that the balance between surface heat fluxes and tidal stirring is the primary control on frontal location: as heat is lost to the atmosphere, full-depth mixing is able to occur in progressively deeper water. In the latter half of the deployment (mid-November to early December), a front controlled solely by heat fluxes and tidal stirring is not predicted to exist, yet a front persists in the observations. We analyse hydrographic observations collected by the glider to attribute the persistence of the front to the boundary between different water masses, in particular to the presence of cold, saline, Atlantic-origin water in the deeper portion of the section. We combine these results to propose that the front is a hybrid front: one controlled in summer by the local balance between heat fluxes and mixing and which in winter exists as the boundary between water masses advected to the north-western North Sea from diverse source regions. The glider observations capture the period when the front makes the transition from its summertime to wintertime state. Fronts in other shelf sea regions with oceanic influence may exhibit similar behaviour, with controlling processes and locations changing over an annual cycle. These results have implications for the thermohaline circulation of shelf seas.
    Print ISSN: 1812-0784
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-0792
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-03-07
    Description: This study suggests that cold-ice processes may be more widespread than previously assumed, even within temperate glacial systems. We present the first systematic mapping of cold ice at the snout of the temperate glacier Midtdalsbreen, an outlet of the Hardangerjøkulen icefield (Norway), from 43 line kilometres of ground-penetrating radar data. Results show a 40 m wide cold-ice zone within the majority of the glacier snout, where ice thickness is 〈10 m. We interpret ice to be cold-based across this zone, consistent with basal freeze-on processes involved in the deposition of moraines. We also find at least two zones of cold ice up to 15 m thick within the ablation area, occasionally extending to the glacier bed. There are two further zones of cold ice up to 30 m thick in the accumulation area, also extending to the glacier bed. Cold-ice zones in the ablation area tend to correspond to areas of the glacier that are covered by late-lying seasonal snow patches that reoccur over multiple years. Subglacial topography and the location of the freezing isotherm within the glacier and underlying subglacial strata likely influence the transport and supply of supraglacial debris and formation of controlled moraines. The wider implication of this study is the possibility that, with continued climate warming, temperate environments with primarily temperate glaciers could become polythermal in forthcoming decades with (i) persisting thinning and (ii) retreat to higher altitudes where subglacial permafrost could be and/or become more widespread. Adversely, the number and size of late-lying snow patches in ablation areas may decrease and thereby reduce the extent of cold ice, reinforcing the postulated change in the thermal regime.
    Print ISSN: 1994-0416
    Electronic ISSN: 1994-0424
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-05-24
    Description: The Bureau of Meteorology Atmospheric high-resolution Regional Reanalysis for Australia (BARRA) is the first atmospheric regional reanalysis over a large region covering Australia, New Zealand, and Southeast Asia. The production of the reanalysis with approximately 12 km horizontal resolution – BARRA-R – is well underway with completion expected in 2019. This paper describes the numerical weather forecast model, the data assimilation methods, the forcing and observational data used to produce BARRA-R, and analyses results from the 2003–2016 reanalysis. BARRA-R provides a realistic depiction of the meteorology at and near the surface over land as diagnosed by temperature, wind speed, surface pressure, and precipitation. Comparing against the global reanalyses ERA-Interim and MERRA-2, BARRA-R scores lower root mean square errors when evaluated against (point-scale) 2 m temperature, 10 m wind speed, and surface pressure observations. It also shows reduced biases in daily 2 m temperature maximum and minimum at 5 km resolution and a higher frequency of very heavy precipitation days at 5 and 25 km resolution when compared to gridded satellite and gauge analyses. Some issues with BARRA-R are also identified: biases in 10 m wind, lower precipitation than observed over the tropical oceans, and higher precipitation over regions with higher elevations in south Asia and New Zealand. Some of these issues could be improved through dynamical downscaling of BARRA-R fields using convective-scale (〈2 km) models.
    Print ISSN: 1991-959X
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-9603
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: Stratospheric volcanic eruptions have far-reaching impacts on global climate and society. Tree rings can provide valuable climatic information on these impacts across different spatial and temporal scales. Here we explore the suitability of tree-ring width (TRW), maximum latewood density (MXD), cell wall thickness (CWT), and δ13C and δ18O in tree-ring cellulose for the detection of climatic changes in northeastern Yakutia (YAK), eastern Taimyr (TAY) and Russian Altai (ALT) sites caused by six largest Common Era stratospheric volcanic eruptions (535, 540, 1257, 1640, 1815 and 1991). Our findings suggest that TRW, MXD, and CWT show strong summer air temperature anomalies in 536, 541–542, 1258–1259 at all study sites. However, they do not reveal distinct and coherent fingerprints after other eruptions. Based on δ13C data, 536 was extremely humid in YAK and TAY, whereas 541 and 542 were humid years in TAY and ALT. In contrast, the 1257 eruption of Samalas likely triggered a sequence of at least two dry summers across all three Siberian sites. No further extreme hydro-climatic anomalies occurred at Siberian sites in the aftermath of the 1991 eruption. Summer sunshine duration decreased significantly in 536, 541–542, 1258–1259 in YAK, and 536 in ALT. Conversely, 1991 was very sunny in YAK. Since climatic responses to large volcanic eruptions are different, and thus affect ecosystem functioning and productivity differently in space and time, a combined assessment of multiple tree-ring parameters is needed to provide a more complete picture of past climate dynamics, which in turns appears fundamental to validate global climate models.
    Print ISSN: 1814-9340
    Electronic ISSN: 1814-9359
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-31
    Description: Two approaches to ice-sheet modeling are available. Analytical modeling is the traditional approach. It solves the force (momentum), mass, and energy balances to obtain three-dimensional solutions over time, beginning with the Navier-Stokes equations for the force balance. Geometrical modeling employs simple geometry to solve the force and mass balance in one dimension along ice flow. It is useful primarily to provide the first-order physical basis of ice-sheet modeling for students with little background in mathematics (Hughes, 2012). The geometric approach uses changes in ice-bed coupling along flow to calculate changes in ice elevation and thickness, using floating fraction φ along a flowline or flowband, where φ = 0 for sheet flow, 0 
    Print ISSN: 1994-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1994-0440
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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