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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-11-14
    Description: We present a new approach in astrodynamics and celestial mechanics fields, called hybrid perturbation theory. A hybrid perturbation theory combines an integrating technique, general perturbation theory or special perturbation theory or semianalytical method, with a forecasting technique, statistical time series model or computational intelligence method. This combination permits an increase in the accuracy of the integrating technique, through the modeling of higher-order terms and other external forces not considered in the integrating technique. In this paper, neural networks have been used as time series forecasters in order to help two economic general perturbation theories describe the motion of an orbiter only perturbed by the Earth’s oblateness.
    Print ISSN: 1024-123X
    Electronic ISSN: 1563-5147
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-07-07
    Description: A scalable second-order analytical orbit propagator programme based on modern and classical perturbation methods is being developed. As a first step in the validation and verification of part of our orbit propagator programme, we only consider the perturbation produced by zonal harmonic coefficients in the Earth’s gravity potential, so that it is possible to analyze the behaviour of the mathematical expressions involved in Delaunay normalization and the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky method in depth and determine their limits.
    Print ISSN: 1024-123X
    Electronic ISSN: 1563-5147
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-03-03
    Description: Deprit’s method has been revisited in order to take advantage of certain arbitrariness arising when the inverse of the Lie operator is applied to obtain the generating function of the Lie transform. This arbitrariness is intrinsic to all perturbation techniques and can be used to demonstrate the equivalence among different perturbation methods, to remove terms from the generating function of the Lie transform, or to eliminate several angles simultaneously in the case of having a degenerate Hamiltonian.
    Print ISSN: 1024-123X
    Electronic ISSN: 1563-5147
    Topics: Mathematics , Technology
    Published by Hindawi
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-06-25
    Description: Small steam-driven volcanic explosions are common at volcanoes worldwide but are rarely documented or monitored; therefore, these events still put residents and tourists at risk every year. Steam-driven explosions also occur frequently (once every 2–5 years on average) at Lascar volcano, Chile, where they are often spontaneous and lack any identifiable precursor activity. Here, for the first time at Lascar, we describe the processes culminating in such a sudden volcanic explosion that occurred on October 30, 2015, which was thoroughly monitored by cameras, a seismic network, and gas (SO2 and CO2) and temperature sensors. Prior to the eruption, we retrospectively identified unrest manifesting as a gradual increase in the number of long-period (LP) seismic events in 2014, indicating an augmented level of activity at the volcano. Additionally, SO2 flux and thermal anomalies were detected before the eruption. Then, our weather station reported a precipitation event, followed by changes in the brightness of the permanent volcanic plume and (10 days later) by the sudden volcanic explosion. The multidisciplinary data exhibited short-term variations associated with the explosion, including (1) an abrupt eruption onset that was seismically identified in the 1–10 Hz frequency band, (2) the detection of a 1.7 km high white-grey eruption column in camera images, and (3) a pronounced spike in sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates reaching 55 kg sec−1 during the main pulse of the eruption as measured by a mini-DOAS scanner. Continuous CO2 gas and temperature measurements conducted at a fumarole on the southern rim of the Lascar crater revealed a pronounced change in the trend of the relationship between the carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratio and the gas outlet temperature; we believe that this change was associated with the prior precipitation event. An increased thermal anomaly inside the active crater observed through Sentinel-2 images and drone overflights performed after the steam-driven explosion revealed the presence of a fracture ~ 50 metres in diameter truncating the dome and located deep inside the active crater, which coincides well with the location of the thermal anomaly. Altogether, these observations lead us to infer that a lava dome was present and subjected to cooling and inhibited degassing. We conjecture that a precipitation event led to the short-term build-up of pressure inside the shallow dome that eventually triggered a vent-clearing phreatic explosion. This study shows the chronology of events culminating in a steam-driven explosion but also demonstrates that phreatic explosions are difficult to forecast, even if the volcano is thoroughly monitored; these findings also emphasize why ascending to the summits of Lascar and similar volcanoes is hazardous, particularly after considerable rainfall.
    Electronic ISSN: 2195-9269
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-09-16
    Description: The increasing demand for high-resolution climate information has attracted a growing attention for statistical downscaling methods (SD), due in part to their relative advantages and merits as compared to dynamical approaches (based on regional climate model simulations), such as their much lower computational cost and their fitness-for-purpose for many local-scale applications. As a result, a plethora of SD methods is nowadays available for climate scientists, which has motivated recent efforts for their comprehensive evaluation, like the VALUE Project (http://www.value-cost.eu). The systematic intercomparison of a large number of SD techniques undertaken in VALUE, many of them independently developed by different authors and modeling centers in a variety of languages/environments, has shown a compelling need for new tools allowing for their application within an integrated framework. With this regard, downscaleR is an R package for statistical downscaling of climate information which covers the most popular approaches (Model Output Statistics – including the so called 'bias correction' methods – and Perfect Prognosis) and state-of-the-art techniques. It has been conceived to work primarily with daily data and can be used in the framework of both seasonal forecasting and climate change studies. Its full integration within the climate4R framework (Iturbide et al. 2019) makes possible the development of end-to-end downscaling applications, from data retrieval to model building, validation and prediction, bringing to climate scientists and practitioners a unique comprehensive framework for SD model development. In this article the main features of downscaleR are showcased through the replication of some of the results obtained in the VALUE Project, making an emphasis in the most technically complex stages of perfect-prog model calibration (predictor screening, cross-validation and model selection) that are accomplished through simple commands allowing for extremely flexible model tuning, tailored to the needs of users requiring an easy interface for different levels of experimental complexity. As part of the open-source climate4R framework, downscaleR is freely available and the necessary data and R scripts to fully replicate the experiments included in this paper are also provided as a companion notebook.
    Print ISSN: 1991-9611
    Electronic ISSN: 1991-962X
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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