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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-10-29
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-08-12
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-09-30
    Description: The Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) is a synthesis effort providing regular compilations of surface to bottom ocean biogeochemical data, with an emphasis on seawater inorganic carbon chemistry and related variables determined through chemical analysis of water samples. This update of GLODAPv2, v2.2019, adds data from 116 cruises to the previous version, extending its coverage in time from 2013 to 2017, while also adding some data from prior years. GLODAPv2.2019 includes measurements from more than 1.1 million water samples from the global oceans collected on 840 cruises. The data for the 12 GLODAP core variables (salinity, oxygen, nitrate, silicate, phosphate, dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and CCl4) have undergone extensive quality control, especially systematic evaluation of bias. The data are available in two formats: (i) as submitted by the data originator but updated to WOCE exchange format and (ii) as a merged data product with adjustments applied to minimize bias. These adjustments were derived by comparing the data from the 116 new cruises with the data from the 724 quality-controlled cruises of the GLODAPv2 data product. They correct for errors related to measurement, calibration, and data handling practices, taking into account any known or likely time trends or variations. The compiled and adjusted data product is believed to be consistent to better than 0.005 in salinity, 1 % in oxygen, 2 % in nitrate, 2 % in silicate, 2 % in phosphate, 4 µmol kg−1 in dissolved inorganic carbon, 4 µmol kg−1 in total alkalinity, 0.01–0.02 in pH, and 5 % in the halogenated transient tracers. The compilation also includes data for several other variables, such as isotopic tracers. These were not subjected to bias comparison or adjustments. The original data, their documentation and DOI codes are available in the Ocean Carbon Data System of NOAA NCEI (https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/ocads/oceans/GLODAPv2_2019/, last access: 17 September 2019). This site also provides access to the merged data product, which is provided as a single global file and as four regional ones – the Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans – under https://doi.org/10.25921/xnme-wr20 (Olsen et al., 2019). The product files also include significant ancillary and approximated data. These were obtained by interpolation of, or calculation from, measured data. This paper documents the GLODAPv2.2019 methods and provides a broad overview of the secondary quality control procedures and results.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-31
    Description: Global climatologies of the seawater CO2 chemistry variables are necessary to assess the marine carbon cycle in depth. The climatologies should adequately capture seasonal variability to properly address ocean acidification and similar issues related to the carbon cycle. Total alkalinity (AT) is one variable of the seawater CO2 chemistry system involved in ocean acidification and frequently measured. We used the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project version 2.2019 (GLODAPv2) to extract relationships among the drivers of the AT variability and AT concentration using a neural network (NNGv2) to generate a monthly climatology. The GLODAPv2 quality-controlled dataset used was modeled by the NNGv2 with a root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 5.3 µmol kg−1. Validation tests with independent datasets revealed the good generalization of the network. Data from five ocean time-series stations showed an acceptable RMSE range of 3–6.2 µmol kg−1. Successful modeling of the monthly AT variability in the time series suggests that the NNGv2 is a good candidate to generate a monthly climatology. The climatological fields of AT were obtained passing through the NNGv2 the World Ocean Atlas 2013 (WOA13) monthly climatologies of temperature, salinity, and oxygen and the computed climatologies of nutrients from the previous ones with a neural network. The spatiotemporal resolution is set by WOA13: 1∘ × 1∘ in the horizontal, 102 depth levels (0–5500 m) in the vertical and monthly (0–1500 m) to annual (1550–5500 m) temporal resolution. The product is distributed through the data repository of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC; https://doi.org/10.20350/digitalCSIC/8644, Broullón et al., 2019).
    Print ISSN: 1866-3508
    Electronic ISSN: 1866-3516
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-09-25
    Description: The Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) is a synthesis effort providing regular compilations of surface to bottom ocean biogeochemical data, with an emphasis on seawater inorganic carbon chemistry and related variables determined through chemical analysis of water samples. This update of GLODAPv2, v2.2019, adds data from 116 cruises to the previous version, extending its coverage in time from 2013 to 2017, while also adding some data from prior years. GLODAPv2.2019 includes measurements from more than 1.1 million water samples from the global oceans collected on 840 cruises. The data for the 12 GLODAP core variables (salinity, oxygen, nitrate, silicate, phosphate, dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and CCl4) have undergone extensive quality control, especially systematic evaluation of bias. The data are available in two formats: (i) as submitted by the data originator but updated to WOCE exchange format and (ii) as a merged data product with adjustments applied to minimize bias. These adjustments were derived by comparing the data from the 116 new cruises with the data from the 724 quality-controlled cruises of the GLODAPv2 data product. They correct for errors related to measurement, calibration, and data handling practices, taking into account any known or likely time trends or variations. The compiled and adjusted data product is believed to be consistent to better than 0.005 in salinity, 1 % in oxygen, 2 % in nitrate, 2 % in silicate, 2 % in phosphate, 4 µmol kg−1 in dissolved inorganic carbon, 4 µmol kg−1 in total alkalinity, 0.01–0.02 in pH, and 5 % in the halogenated transient tracers. The compilation also includes data for several other variables, such as isotopic tracers. These were not subjected to bias comparison or adjustments. The original data, their documentation and DOI codes are available in the Ocean Carbon Data System of NOAA NCEI (https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/ocads/oceans/GLODAPv2_2019/, last access: 17 September 2019). This site also provides access to the merged data product, which is provided as a single global file and as four regional ones – the Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans – under https://doi.org/10.25921/xnme-wr20 (Olsen et al., 2019). The product files also include significant ancillary and approximated data. These were obtained by interpolation of, or calculation from, measured data. This paper documents the GLODAPv2.2019 methods and provides a broad overview of the secondary quality control procedures and results.
    Print ISSN: 1866-3508
    Electronic ISSN: 1866-3516
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-01-19
    Description: We here present the new GLODAP version 2 (GLODAPv2) mapped climatology, which is based on data from all ocean basins up to and including 2013. In contrast to its predecessor, GLODAPv1.1, this climatology also covers the Arctic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. The quality controlled and internally consistent data product files of GLODAPv2 (Olsen et al., 2015; Key et al., 2015) were used to create global 1° × 1° mapped climatologies of total dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, and pH using the Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA) mapping method. Climatologies were created for 33 standard pressure surfaces. To minimize the risk of translating temporal variability in the input data to spatial variations in the mapped climatologies, layers with pressures of 1000 dbar, or less, were mapped for two different time periods: 1986–1999 and 2000–2013, roughly corresponding to the "WOCE" and "CLIVAR" eras of global ocean surveys. All data from the 1972–2013 period were used in the mapping of pressures higher than 1000 dbar. In addition to the marine CO2 chemistry parameters listed above, nitrate, phosphate, silicate, oxygen, salinity and theta were also mapped using DIVA. For these parameters all data from the full 1972–2013 period were used on all 33 surfaces. The GLODAPv2 global 1° × 1° mapped climatologies, including error fields and ancillary information have been made available at the GLODAPv2 web page at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC, http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/GLODAPv2/).
    Electronic ISSN: 1866-3591
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-08-15
    Description: We present a mapped climatology (GLODAPv2.2016b) of ocean biogeochemical variables based on the new GLODAP version 2 data product (Olsen et al., 2016; Key et al., 2015), which covers all ocean basins over the years 1972 to 2013. The quality-controlled and internally consistent GLODAPv2 was used to create global 1° × 1° mapped climatologies of salinity, temperature, oxygen, nitrate, phosphate, silicate, total dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2), total alkalinity (TAlk), pH, and CaCO3 saturation states using the Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA) mapping method. Improving on maps based on an earlier but similar dataset, GLODAPv1.1, this climatology also covers the Arctic Ocean. Climatologies were created for 33 standard depth surfaces. The conceivably confounding temporal trends in TCO2 and pH due to anthropogenic influence were removed prior to mapping by normalizing these data to the year 2002 using first-order calculations of anthropogenic carbon accumulation rates. We additionally provide maps of accumulated anthropogenic carbon in the year 2002 and of preindustrial TCO2. For all parameters, all data from the full 1972–2013 period were used, including data that did not receive full secondary quality control. The GLODAPv2.2016b global 1° × 1° mapped climatologies, including error fields and ancillary information, are available at the GLODAPv2 web page at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC; doi:10.3334/CDIAC/OTG.NDP093_GLODAPv2).
    Print ISSN: 1866-3508
    Electronic ISSN: 1866-3516
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-08-15
    Description: Version 2 of the Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAPv2) data product is composed of data from 724 scientific cruises covering the global ocean. It includes data assembled during the previous efforts GLODAPv1.1 (Global Ocean Data Analysis Project version 1.1) in 2004, CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic) in 2009/2010, and PACIFICA (PACIFic ocean Interior CArbon) in 2013, as well as data from an additional 168 cruises. Data for 12 core variables (salinity, oxygen, nitrate, silicate, phosphate, dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and CCl4) have been subjected to extensive quality control, including systematic evaluation of bias. The data are available in two formats: (i) as submitted but updated to WOCE exchange format and (ii) as a merged and internally consistent data product. In the latter, adjustments have been applied to remove significant biases, respecting occurrences of any known or likely time trends or variations. Adjustments applied by previous efforts were re-evaluated. Hence, GLODAPv2 is not a simple merging of previous products with some new data added but a unique, internally consistent data product. This compiled and adjusted data product is believed to be consistent to better than 0.005 in salinity, 1% in oxygen, 2% in nitrate, 2% in silicate, 2% in phosphate, 4µmolkg−1 in dissolved inorganic carbon, 6µmolkg−1 in total alkalinity, 0.005 in pH, and 5% for the halogenated transient tracers.The original data and their documentation and doi codes are available at the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (http://cdiac.ornl.gov/oceans/GLODAPv2/). This site also provides access to the calibrated data product, which is provided as a single global file or four regional ones – the Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans – under the doi:10.3334/CDIAC/OTG.NDP093_GLODAPv2. The product files also include significant ancillary and approximated data. These were obtained by interpolation of, or calculation from, measured data. This paper documents the GLODAPv2 methods and products and includes a broad overview of the secondary quality control results. The magnitude of and reasoning behind each adjustment is available on a per-cruise and per-variable basis in the online Adjustment Table.
    Print ISSN: 1866-3508
    Electronic ISSN: 1866-3516
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-10-26
    Description: Global climatologies of the seawater CO2 chemistry variables are necessary to assess the marine carbon cycle in depth. The seasonal variability should be adequately captured in them to properly address issues such as ocean acidification. Total alkalinity (AT) is one variable of the seawater CO2 chemistry system involved in ocean acidification and frequently measured during campaigns assessing the marine carbon cycle. We took advantage of the data product Global Ocean Data Analysis Project version 2 (GLODAPv2) to extract the relations between the drivers of the AT variability and this variable using a neural network to generate a monthly climatology. 99% of the GLODAPv2 dataset used was modelled by the network with a root-mean-squared error (RMSE) of 5.1 µmol kg-1. The validation carried out using independent datasets revealed the good generalization of the network. Five ocean time-series stations used as an independent test showed an acceptable RMSE in the range of 3.1-6.2 µmol kg-1. The successful modeling of the monthly variability of AT in the time-series makes our network a good candidate to generate a monthly climatology. It was obtained passing the climatologies of the World Ocean Atlas 2013 (WOA13) through the network. The spatiotemporal resolution of the climatology is determined by the one of WOA13: 1ºx1º in the horizontal, 102 depth levels (0-5500m) in the vertical, and 12 months. We offer the product as a service to the scientific community at the data repository of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.20350/digitalCSIC/8564) with the purpose to contribute to a continuous improvement of the understanding of the global carbon cycle.
    Electronic ISSN: 1866-3591
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Description: The Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) is a synthesis effort providing regular compilations of surface to bottom ocean biogeochemical data, with an emphasis on seawater inorganic carbon 40 chemistry and related variables determined through chemical analysis of water samples. This update of GLODAPv2, v2.2019, adds data from 116 cruises to the previous version, extending its coverage in time from 2013 to 2017 while also adding some data from prior years. GLODAPv2.2019 includes measurements from more than 1.1 million water samples from the global oceans collected on 840 cruises. The data for the 12 GLODAP core variables (salinity, oxygen, nitrate, silicate, phosphate, dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and CCl4) have been subjected to extensive quality control, especially systematic evaluation of bias. The data are available in two formats: (i) as submitted by the data originator but updated to WOCE exchange format and (ii) as a merged data product with adjustments applied to minimize bias. These adjustments were derived by comparing the data from the 116 new cruises with the data from the 724 quality-controlled cruises of the GLODAPv2 data product. They correct for errors related to measurement, calibration, and data handling practices, taking into account any known or likely time trends or variations. The compiled and adjusted data product is believed to be consistent to better that 0.005 in salinity, 1 % in oxygen, 2 % in nitrate, 2 % in silicate, 2 % in phosphate, 4 μmol kg−1 in dissolved inorganic carbon, 4 μmol kg−1 in total alkalinity, 0.01 in pH, and 5 % in the halogenated transient tracers. The compilation also includes data for several other variables, such as isotopic tracers. These were not subjected to bias comparison or adjustments. The original data, their documentation and doi codes are available at the Ocean Carbon Data System of NOAA/NCEI (https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/ocads/oceans/GLODAPv2_2019/). This site also provides access to the merged data product, which is provided as a single global file or as four regional ones – the Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans – under the doi: https://doi.org/10.25921/xnme-wr20 (Olsen et al., 2019). The product files also include significant ancillary and approximated data. These were obtained by interpolation of, or calculation from, measured data. This paper documents the GLODAPv2.2019 methods and provides a broad overview of the secondary quality control results.
    Electronic ISSN: 1866-3591
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus
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