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  • Copernicus  (12)
  • American Institute of Physics (AIP)  (5)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The orbital and spin magnetic moments in 3d transition metals are no longer collinear when the electron spins are forced out of their easy direction by an applied magnetic field. This effect provides a new way to measure the anisotropy of the orbital magnetic moment using magnetic circular x-ray dichroism in a geometry where the photon helicity vector is perpendicular to the magnetization direction. As an experimental corroboration we studied the magnetic anisotropy in the Co orbital moment of a Co/Pt multilayer. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 5466-5468 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The evolving magnetism and electronic structure at the Ni/Co interface have been studied using x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) with circularly polarized x rays. Deposition of ultrathin Ni films on thin films of Co grown on Cu(001) results in an intensity enhancement across the Co L2.3 absorption edge. By comparison, the intensity of the Ni L2.3 edge decreases as a function of Ni film thickness. The relative changes in the Ni and Co XAS intensities are interpreted as an electronic charge transfer from the Co to the Ni. Distinct changes in the Co 2p XAS and XPS line shapes after addition of the Ni overlayer imply a modification of the Co 3d electron correlation due to the charge transfer. The change in the electronic structure is related to the interface magnetism using magnetic circular dichroism sum rule analysis. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 87 (2000), S. 5469-5471 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Depending on the growth conditions, FePd thin films can display a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy associated with chemical order. In competition with the shape anisotropy, this can lead to striped magnetic domains, with moments perpendicular to the film plane. Under these circumstances, magnetic flux closure should occur. The striped domains were studied with soft x-ray resonant magnetic scattering using circularly polarized light to demonstrate the presence of closure domains. Magnetic depth profiling was performed both at the Fe and Pd L3 edge, by measuring the magnetic diffraction peak intensities versus angle of incidence θ. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Mathematical Physics 26 (1985), S. 2231-2233 
    ISSN: 1089-7658
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
    Notes: The dyonium is solved exactly by path integration. The Green's function for the dyonium is separated into the monopole harmonics and the radial path integral, and the radial Green's function is found in closed form. The exact energy spectrum is also obtained. Dirac's charge quantization condition is seen to be essential for performing path integration.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 75 (1994), S. 2709-2711 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Thin films of organically modified ceramics with nonlinear-optical-active chromophores produced in a sol-gel process exhibit Maker fringe signals which are superimposed by a periodic fine structure. The fine structure is shown to be due to Fabry–Perot resonances of the second-harmonic light which are stronger as compared to the amplitude corresponding to the regular Fresnel surface reflectivity by one to two orders of magnitude. The effect which is also observed on unpoled samples is tentatively ascribed to an accumulation and partial spontaneous orientation of the chromophores at the film surfaces.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2010-06-25
    Print ISSN: 1810-6277
    Electronic ISSN: 1810-6285
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-03-27
    Description: Potential evaporation (PET) is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET daily time series from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and re-calibrated versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1) evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2) tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles. A major finding is that for part of the investigated basins the selection of a PET method may have only a minor influence on the resulting river flow. Within the hydrological model used in this study the bias related to the PET method tends to decrease while going from PET, AET and runoff to discharge calculations. However, the performance of individual PET methods appears to be spatially variable, which stresses the necessity to select the most accurate and spatially stable PET method. The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95% significance level) between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for a cell-specific re-calibrated Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this re-calibrated form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation applied to the CFSR data did not outperform the other methods in a evaluation against PET derived with the Penman-Monteith equation from CRU data. In arid regions (e.g. Sahara, central Australia, US deserts), the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e.g. Orange, Murray and Zambezi). Furthermore, the Penman-Monteith equation has a high data demand and the equation is sensitive to input data inaccuracy. Therefore, we recommend the re-calibrated form of the Hargreaves equation which globally gave reference PET values comparable to CRU derived values for multiple climate conditions. The resulting gridded daily PET time series provide a new reference dataset that can be used for future hydrological impact assessments in further research, or more specifically, for the statistical downscaling of daily PET derived from raw GCM data. The dataset can be downloaded from http://opendap.deltares.nl/thredds/dodsC/opendap/deltares/FEWS-IPCC.
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-07-28
    Description: Potential evaporation (PET) is one of the main inputs of hydrological models. Yet, there is limited consensus on which PET equation is most applicable in hydrological climate impact assessments. In this study six different methods to derive global scale reference PET time series from CFSR reanalysis data are compared: Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor and original and modified versions of the Hargreaves and Blaney-Criddle method. The calculated PET time series are (1) evaluated against global monthly Penman-Monteith PET time series calculated from CRU data and (2) tested on their usability for modeling of global discharge cycles. The lowest root mean squared differences and the least significant deviations (95 % significance level) between monthly CFSR derived PET time series and CRU derived PET were obtained for the cell specific modified Blaney-Criddle equation. However, results show that this modified form is likely to be unstable under changing climate conditions and less reliable for the calculation of daily time series. Although often recommended, the Penman-Monteith equation did not outperform the other methods. In arid regions (e.g., Sahara, central Australia, US deserts), the equation resulted in relatively low PET values and, consequently, led to relatively high discharge values for dry basins (e.g., Orange, Murray and Zambezi). Furthermore, the Penman-Monteith equation has a high data demand and the equation is sensitive to input data inaccuracy. Therefore, we preferred the modified form of the Hargreaves equation, which globally gave reference PET values comparable to CRU derived values. Although it is a relative efficient empirical equation, like Blaney-Criddle, the equation considers multiple spatial varying meteorological variables and consequently performs well for different climate conditions. In the modified form of the Hargreaves equation the multiplication factor is uniformly increased from 0.0023 to 0.0031 to overcome the global underestimation of CRU derived PET obtained with the original equation. It should be noted that the bias in PET is not linearly transferred to actual evapotranspiration and runoff, due to limited soil moisture availability and precipitation. The resulting gridded daily PET time series provide a new reference dataset that can be used for future hydrological impact assessments or, more specifically, for the statistical downscaling of daily PET derived from raw GCM data.
    Print ISSN: 1812-2108
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-2116
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-10-04
    Description: The complex coastline of the Earth is over 400 000 km long and about 40% of the world's population lives within 100 km of the sea. Past characterizations of the global coastline were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCAT: Coastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LME: Large Marine Ecosystems). Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles which retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation) and 149 sub-units (COSCATS). Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and fresh water residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric profiles. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. These results can be used for regional analyses and combined with various typologies for upscaling and biogeochemical budgets. In addition, the three levels segmentation can be used for application in Earth System analysis.
    Print ISSN: 1812-2108
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-2116
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-08-03
    Description: Questions related to water such as its availability, water needs or stress, or management, are mapped at various resolutions at the global scale. They are reported at many scales, mostly along political or continental boundaries. As such, they ignore the fundamental heterogeneity of the hydroclimate and the natural boundaries of the river basins. Here, we describe the continental landmasses according to eight global-scale hydrobelts strictly limited by river basins, defined at a 30′ (0.5°) resolution. The belts were defined and delineated, based primarily on the annual average temperature (T) and runoff (q), to maximise interbelt differences and minimise intrabelt variability. The belts were further divided into 29 hydroregions based on continental limits. This new global puzzle defines homogeneous and near-contiguous entities with similar hydrological and thermal regimes, glacial and postglacial basin histories, endorheism distribution and sensitivity to climate variations. The Mid-Latitude, Dry and Subtropical belts have northern and southern analogues and a general symmetry can be observed for T and q between them. The Boreal and Equatorial belts are unique. The hydroregions (median size 4.7 Mkm2) contrast strongly, with the average q ranging between 6 and 1393 mm yr−1 and the average T between −9.7 and +26.3 °C. Unlike the hydroclimate, the population density between the North and South belts and between the continents varies greatly, resulting in pronounced differences between the belts with analogues in both hemispheres. The population density ranges from 0.7 to 0.8 p km−2 for the North American Boreal and some Australian hydroregions to 280 p km−2 for the Asian part of the Northern Mid-Latitude belt. The combination of population densities and hydroclimate features results in very specific expressions of water-related characteristics in each of the 29 hydroregions. Our initial tests suggest that hydrobelt and hydroregion divisions are often more appropriate for water-relative global analysis and reporting than conventional continental or political divisions.
    Print ISSN: 1812-2108
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-2116
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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