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  • Cambridge University Press  (14)
  • Springer  (3)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The time variation of the sea-ice concentration and multiyear ice fraction within the pack ice in the Arctic Basin is examined, using microwave images of sea ice recently acquired by the Nimbus-5 spacecraft and the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The images used for these studies were constructed from data acquired from the Electrically Scanned Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) which records radiation from earth and its atmosphere at a wavelength of 1.55 cm. Data are analyzed for four seasons during 1973–1975 to illustrate some basic differences in the properties of the sea ice during those times. Spacecraft data are compared with corresponding NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory data obtained over wide areas in the Arctic Basin during the Main Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment (1975) to illustrate the applicability of passive-microwave remote sensing for monitoring the time dependence of sea-ice concentration (divergence). These observations indicate significant variations in the sea-ice concentration in the spring, late fall and early winter. In addition, deep in the interior of the Arctic polar sea-ice pack, heretofore unobserved large areas, several hundred kilometers in extent, of sea-ice concentrations as low as 50% are indicated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract During the AIDJEX Main Experiment, April 1975 through May 1976, a comprehensive microwave sensing program was performed on the sea ice of the Beaufort Sea. Surface and aircraft measurements were obtained during all seasons using a wide variety of active and passive microwave sensors. The surface program obtained passive microwave measurements of various ice types using four antennas mounted on a tracked vehicle. In three test regions, each with an area of approximately 1.5 × 104 m2, detailed ice crystallographic, dielectric properties, and brightness temperatures of first-year, multiyear, and first-year/multiyear mixtures were measured. A NASA aircraft obtained passive microwave measurements of the entire area of the AIDJEX manned station array (triangle) during each of 18 flights. This verified the earlier reported ability to distinguish first-year and multiyear ice types and concentration and gave new information on ways to observe ice mixtures and thin ice types. The active microwave measurements from aircraft included those from an X- and L-band radar and from a scatterometer. The former is used to study a wide variety of ice features and to estimate deformations, while both are equally usable to observe ice types. With the present data, only the scatterometer can be used to distinguish positively multiyear from first-year and various types of thin ice. This is best done using coupled active and passive microwave sensing.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract This paper presents: (1) a short historical review of the passive microwave research on sea ice which established the observational and theoretical base permitting the interpretation of the first passive microwave images of Earth obtained by the Nimbus-5 ESMR; (2) the construction of a time-lapse motion picture film of a 16-month set of serial ESMR images to aid in the formidable data analysis task; and (3) a few of the most significant findings resulting from an early analysis of these data, using selected ESMR images to illustrate these findings.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1980-01-01
    Description: The microwave emission from a half-space medium characterized by coordinate dependent scattering and absorbing centers has been calculated by numerically solving the radiative transfer equation by the method of invariant imbedding. A Mie scattering phase function and surface polarization have been included in the calculation. Also included are the physical temperature profile and the temperature variation of the index of refraction for ice. Using published values of grain-size and temperature-profile data of polar firn, the brightness temperature has been calculated for the 1.55 cm and 0.8 cm wavelengths. For selected regions in Greenland and Antarctica, the results of our calculations are in reasonable agreement with the observed Nimbus-5 and Nimbus-6 ESMR data.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 1980-01-01
    Description: The microwave emission from a half-space medium characterized by coordinate dependent scattering and absorbing centers has been calculated by numerically solving the radiative transfer equation by the method of invariant imbedding. A Mie scattering phase function and surface polarization have been included in the calculation. Also included are the physical temperature profile and the temperature variation of the index of refraction for ice. Using published values of grain-size and temperature-profile data of polar firn, the brightness temperature has been calculated for the 1.55 cm and 0.8 cm wavelengths. For selected regions in Greenland and Antarctica, the results of our calculations are in reasonable agreement with the observed Nimbus-5 and Nimbus-6 ESMR data.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 1975-01-01
    Description: Starting with the TIROS-2 weather satellite in 1961 which permitted synoptic viewing of large-scale areas with an 011-board television camera system, the capabilities of satellite observations for assessing snow and ice resources on Earth have been greatly improved through the utilization of higher resolution imaging systems and multispectral images in the wavelength range from 0.4 μm to 1.55 cm. The possibility that the variation in areal extent of the snow cover may be related by empirical means to the average monthly run-off in a given watershed was demonstrated by comparing run-off records from the Indus River Basin in south-east Asia with a series of snow-cover maps obtained from Nimbus-3 and 4 imagery. Similar studies using the higher spatial resolution available with ERTS-I imagery were carried out for the Wind River Mountains watersheds in Wyoming, where it was found that the empirical relationship varied with mean elevation of the watershed. In addition, digital image-enhancement techniques are shown to be useful for identifying glacier features thought to be related to extent of snow cover, moraine characteristics, debris coverage, and the like. Finally, longer wavelength observations using sensors on board the Nimbus-5 satellite are shown to be useful for indicating crystal size distributions and onset of melting on glacier snow cover.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1975-01-01
    Description: This paper presents an overview of recent remote-sensing techniques as applied to geophysical studies of floating ice. The current increase in scientific interest in floating ice has occurred during a time of rapid evolution of both remote-sensing platforms and sensors. Mesoscale and macroscale studies of floating ice are discussed under three sensor categories: visual, passive microwave, and active microwave. The specific studies that are reviewed primarily investigate ice drift and deformation, and ice type and ice roughness identification and distribution.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1975-01-01
    Description: Starting with the TIROS-2 weather satellite in 1961 which permitted synoptic viewing of large-scale areas with an 011-board television camera system, the capabilities of satellite observations for assessing snow and ice resources on Earth have been greatly improved through the utilization of higher resolution imaging systems and multispectral images in the wavelength range from 0.4 μm to 1.55 cm. The possibility that the variation in areal extent of the snow cover may be related by empirical means to the average monthly run-off in a given watershed was demonstrated by comparing run-off records from the Indus River Basin in south-east Asia with a series of snow-cover maps obtained from Nimbus-3 and 4 imagery. Similar studies using the higher spatial resolution available with ERTS-I imagery were carried out for the Wind River Mountains watersheds in Wyoming, where it was found that the empirical relationship varied with mean elevation of the watershed. In addition, digital image-enhancement techniques are shown to be useful for identifying glacier features thought to be related to extent of snow cover, moraine characteristics, debris coverage, and the like. Finally, longer wavelength observations using sensors on board the Nimbus-5 satellite are shown to be useful for indicating crystal size distributions and onset of melting on glacier snow cover.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1976-01-01
    Description: The microwave emission from a model snow field, consisting of randomly spaced ice spheres which scatter independently, is calculated. Mie scattering and radiative transfer theory are applied in a manner similar to that used in calculating microwave and optical properties of clouds. The extinction coefficient is computed as a function of both microwave wavelength and ice-particle radius. Volume scattering by the individual ice particles in the snow field significantly decreases the computed emission for particle radii greater than a few hundredths of the microwave wavelength. Since the mean annual temperature and the accumulation rate of dry polar firn mainly determine the grain sizes upon which the microwave emission depends, these two parameters account for the main features of the 1.55 cm emission observed from Greenland and Antarctica with the Nimbus-5 scanning radiometer. For snow particle sizes normally encountered, most of the calculated radiation emanates from a layer on the order of 10 m in thickness at a wavelength of 2.8 cm, and less at shorter wavelengths. A marked increase in emission from wet versus dry snow is predicted, a result which is consistent with observations. The model results indicate that the characteristic grain sizes in the radiating layers, dry-firn accumulation rales, areas of summer melting, and physical temperatures, can be determined from multispectral microwave observations.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1976-01-01
    Description: The microwave emission from a model snow field, consisting of randomly spaced ice spheres which scatter independently, is calculated. Mie scattering and radiative transfer theory are applied in a manner similar to that used in calculating microwave and optical properties of clouds. The extinction coefficient is computed as a function of both microwave wavelength and ice-particle radius. Volume scattering by the individual ice particles in the snow field significantly decreases the computed emission for particle radii greater than a few hundredths of the microwave wavelength. Since the mean annual temperature and the accumulation rate of dry polar firn mainly determine the grain sizes upon which the microwave emission depends, these two parameters account for the main features of the 1.55 cm emission observed from Greenland and Antarctica with the Nimbus-5 scanning radiometer. For snow particle sizes normally encountered, most of the calculated radiation emanates from a layer on the order of 10 m in thickness at a wavelength of 2.8 cm, and less at shorter wavelengths. A marked increase in emission from wet versus dry snow is predicted, a result which is consistent with observations. The model results indicate that the characteristic grain sizes in the radiating layers, dry-firn accumulation rales, areas of summer melting, and physical temperatures, can be determined from multispectral microwave observations.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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