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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1574-6941
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Leaching of genetically engineered microbes (GEMs) through soil is a significant concern related to groundwater quality. The objective of this study was to examine the leaching, survival and gene transfer of a genetically engineered microbe and indigenous recipients of pR68.45 in nonsterile, undisturbed soil columns. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO25, containing the plasmid R68.45, was added to the surface of undisturbed soil columns (10 cm diameter × 80 cm length). Unsaturated flow conditions were maintained by 100 ml daily additions of 2 mM CaCl2 for a period of 70 days. The population of the GEM exhibited a significant (P = 0.05) linear decline with time. The GEM leached only to a depth of 30–40 cm in 70 days. Transfer of pR68.45 was shown to occur from P. aeruginosa into the indigenous bacterial population although relatively low numbers of transconjugants were observed (log 2 cfu g−1 dry soil). The number of transconjugants also decreased with depth and time. Leaching of transconjugants, however, occured more readily than that of the GEM, probably as a result of plasmid transfer into smaller, more mobile bacteria. At 70 days incubation, no GEMs were detected in the columns, while transconjugants were observed at several depths. These results demonstrate the importance of examining both the survival and movement of GEMs and transconjugants in soil.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1976-01-01
    Description: Biophysical and other ‘outer limits’ of food, land, water, climatic change, stratospheric chemistry, energy, hazardous substances, non-fuel minerals, human stress, and social and ecological stability, raise fundamental questions about present trends in management methods and in global organization. The diverse outer limits surveyed in this paper reflect complex, poorly perceived, and often unsuspected, interconnections between numerous biological and geophysical processes, many of which are obscure or still unknown. Our lack of predictive power, let alone of quantitative understanding, implies a need to treat essential life-support systems with great caution and forbearance, lest we erode safety margins whose importance we do not yet appreciate.Even those outer limits which now seem remote are relevant to present policy, as their timely avoidance may require us to discard otherwise attractive short-term policies in favour of others that offer less immediate advantage but that retain options which may be needed later. Such alternative policies may have to rely more on social than on technical innovation in order to address underlying disequilibria rather than merely palliating their symptoms. Moreover, some outer limits are sufficiently imminent, or require such long lead-times to avoid, that fundamental changes in policy, in institutions, and in the degree of global interdependence, seem necessary if we are to live to enjoy some of the later and more interesting limits to human activity.
    Print ISSN: 0376-8929
    Electronic ISSN: 1469-4387
    Topics: Biology
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