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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press
    Economics and philosophy 6 (1990), S. 139-146 
    ISSN: 0266-2671
    Source: Cambridge Journals Digital Archives
    Topics: Philosophy , Economics
    Notes: In a recent examination of the origins of ordinal utility theory in neoclassical economics, Robert D. Cooter and Peter Rappoport argue that the ordinalist revolution of the 1930s, after which most economists abandoned interpersonal utility comparisons as normative and unscientific, constituted neither unambiguous progress in economic science nor the abandonment of normative theorizing, as many economists and historians of economic thought have generally believed (Cooter and Rappoport, 1984). Rather, the widespread acceptance of ordinalism, with its focus on Pareto optimality, simply represented the emergence of a new neoclassical research agenda that, on the one hand, defined economics differently than had the material welfare theorists of the cardinal utility school and, on the other, adopted a positivist methodology in contrast to the less restrictive empiricism of the cardinalists.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0305-7410
    Source: Cambridge Journals Digital Archives
    Topics: Linguistics and Literary Studies , History , Political Science , Sociology , Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press
    Recall 5 (1993), S. 3-7 
    ISSN: 0958-3440
    Source: Cambridge Journals Digital Archives
    Topics: Linguistics and Literary Studies , Computer Science
    Notes: The object of this paper is to outline the current thinking of the European Commission, or more accurately of DGXIII in Luxembourg, on the subject of that fascinating point of intersection between language and technology. An initial presentation of background issues will serve as a platform on which to analyse the direction the Commission's policy on linguistic research might take in the 4th Framework Programme (1994–98). Finally some suggestions will be made of ways in which language teachers, and researchers in the field of CALL, could try to become involved in the R+D activities of the Framework Programme (in the short/medium term) and, perhaps more importantly, influence the scientific content of future European Community research programmes.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press
    The @China quarterly 132 (1992), S. 1062-1085 
    ISSN: 0305-7410
    Source: Cambridge Journals Digital Archives
    Topics: Linguistics and Literary Studies , History , Political Science , Sociology , Economics
    Notes: From the mid-1950s right through the late 1970s jobs in urban China were largely treated as a welfare benefit; life-time employment was the norm and there was neither a buyer's market nor a seller's market for labour. In the state sector hiring was done on the basis of annual quotas established by national level ministries which in turn allocated openings to subordinate offices and factories within each bureaucratic chain of command. For those entering the labour force for the first time, job seeking was defined as “waiting for an assignment” (dai ye) and placement was usually handled within secondary schools by classroom teachers. For those already employed by a state unit, moving to a new employer was a “transfer” (or diao dong) and required appeals to at least two supervisory levels within the firm, and then approval from the administrative supervisors for both new and old employers. For CCP members there were additional sanctioning bodies in the Party hierarchy.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2008-01-01
    Description: Devon Ice Cap, Nunavut, Canada, has been losing mass since at least 1960. Laser-altimetry surveys, however, suggest that the high-elevation region (〉1200 m) of the ice cap thickened between 1995 and 2000, perhaps because of anomalously high accumulation rates during this period. We derive an independent estimate of thickness change in this region by comparing ∼40 year mean annual net accumulation rates to mean specific outflow rates for 11 drainage basins. The area-averaged rate of thickness change across the whole region is within error of zero (0.01 ± 0.12 m w.e. a−1), but two drainage basins in the northwest are thickening significantly, and two basins in the south are thinning significantly. The laser-altimetry observations are biased towards the drainage basins where we find thickening. Recent changes in the rate of accumulation or the rate of firnification cannot explain the observed thickening, but decreased ice outflow, due to the penetration of Neoglacial cooling to, and subsequent stiffening of, the basal ice, may provide an explanation. Thinning in the south may result from increased ice outflow from basins in which fast flow and basal sliding extend above 1200 m.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2008-01-01
    Description: We compare rates of surface-elevation change on the Greenland ice sheet derived from European Remote-sensing Satellite-2 (ERS-2) radar-altimeter data with those obtained from laser-altimeter data collected over nearly the same time periods. Radar-altimeter data show more rapid thickening (9 ± 1 cm a−1 above 1500 m elevation in the north, and 3 ± 1 cm a−1 above 2000 m in the south) than the laser estimates, possibly caused by a lifting of the radar-reflection horizon associated with changes in the snowpack, such as those caused by progressively increased surface melting, as summer temperatures rise. Over all the ice sheet above 2000 m, this results in an ERS-derived volume balance ∼75 ± 15 km3 a−1 more positive than that from laser data. This bias between laser and radar estimates of elevation change varies spatially and temporally, so cannot at present be corrected without independent surveys such as those presented here. At lower elevations, comparison of detailed repeat laser surveys over Jakobshavn Isbræ with ERS results over the same time interval shows substantial ERS underestimation of ice-thinning rates. This results partly from missing data because of ‘bad’ radar waveforms over the very rough surface topography, and partly from the tendency for large radar footprints to sample preferentially local high points in the topography, thus missing regions of most rapid thinning along glacier depressions.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1993-01-01
    Description: Geosat-altimeter wave forms from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets are analyzed using an algorithm based upon a combined surface-and volume-scattering model. The results demonstrate that sub-surface volume-scattering occurs over major parts of the ice sheets. Quantitative estimates of geographic variations in the near-surface ice-sheet properties are derived by retrackingindividualaltimeter wave forms. The derived surface properties correlate with elevation, latitude and microwave brightness-temperature data. Specifically, the extinction coefficient of snow obtained by this method varies from 0.48 to 0.13 m−1over the latitudes from 65° to 72°N on the central part of the Greenland ice sheet and from 0.20 to 0.10 m−1over a section of Wilkes Land in East Antarctica where the elevation increases from 2550 to 3150 m.Analysis of passive-microwave data over East Antarctica shows that the brightness temperature increases with elevation as the extinction coefficient decreases. Larger snow grain-sizes occur at lower elevations of the ice sheet because of higher mean annual temperatures. The larger grain-sizes increase the extinction coefficient of snow and decrease the emitted energy (brightness temperature) from greater snow depths. The passive-microwave data are also used to determine the average number of melt d year−1(1979–87) for the central part of the Greenland ice sheet. For latitudes from 65° to 68.5° N, the average number of melt days decreases from 3.5 to 0.25 d year, whereas no melt events are observed for latitudes above 69°N over the 8 year period. Snow subjected to alternate melting and freezing has enhanced grain-sizes compared to that of dry snow. This accounts for the larger values and larger spatial variations ofkeon the Greenland ice sheet compared to East Antarctica, where surface temperatures are never high enough to cause surface melting.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1991-01-01
    Description: An X-band FM-CW radar was used to determine the feasibility of observing annual snow-accumulation layers in Antarctica with a high-resolution inexpensive radar system. The formation of layering boundaries, their resultant electromagnetic discontinuity and their detection by reflected energy are presented. Large returns from depths corresponding to reasonable positions for annual layers were found. The average accumulation rates calculated from the radar returns agree with those measured in a previous pit study done in the same area. The detection of the annual accumulation layers with this system implies a simple, inexpensive mobile radar could be used to profile large areas allowing the distorting effects of local topography to be removed.This type of system with a concurrent pit study could provide insight into the effect of sub-surface strata on spaceborne or airborne microwave remote sensing.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1993-01-01
    Description: This study links two models, one that simulates changes in snow microstructure and one that recovers microstructure properties from measurements of snow reflectance. An energy and mass transfer model, SNTHERM.89, was used to calculate snow grain growth. Grain-sizes from the model and measurements of grain bond areas provided estimates of the surface-to-volume ratio of the bulk snow, which were transformed to geometrically-equivalent sphere sizes. An inversion technique based on a discrete-ordinate model of the directional reflectance recovered optically-equivalent sphere sizes from reflectance measurements at 1.075 μm. The predictions of equivalent sphere sizes from the snow model and the recovered optical sphere sizes from the inversion method were compared with stereological measurements from snow sections. The geometrically-equivalent and optically-equivalent grain-sizes showed good agreement with each other and with stereological measurements from snow a few days old. The predictions of the reflectance inversion method also compared favorably with geometrically-equivalent grain-sizes measured from a melt-freeze surface crust. This investigation showed the potential for fully coupling snow property simulations with models to predict the spectral reflectance of snow.
    Print ISSN: 0260-3055
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5644
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1993-01-01
    Description: This study links two models, one that simulates changes in snow microstructure and one that recovers microstructure properties from measurements of snow reflectance. An energy and mass transfer model, SNTHERM.89, was used to calculate snow grain growth. Grain-sizes from the model and measurements of grain bond areas provided estimates of the surface-to-volume ratio of the bulk snow, which were transformed to geometrically-equivalent sphere sizes. An inversion technique based on a discrete-ordinate model of the directional reflectance recovered optically-equivalent sphere sizes from reflectance measurements at 1.075 μm. The predictions of equivalent sphere sizes from the snow model and the recovered optical sphere sizes from the inversion method were compared with stereological measurements from snow sections. The geometrically-equivalent and optically-equivalent grain-sizes showed good agreement with each other and with stereological measurements from snow a few days old. The predictions of the reflectance inversion method also compared favorably with geometrically-equivalent grain-sizes measured from a melt-freeze surface crust. This investigation showed the potential for fully coupling snow property simulations with models to predict the spectral reflectance of snow.
    Print ISSN: 0260-3055
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5644
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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