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  • COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH  (2)
  • Wiley  (2)
  • ASLO (Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-02-10
    Description: Methods for measuring aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) rates in aquatic environments are often based on the incubation of water samples, during which the consumption of methane (CH4) is monitored. Typically, incubation vessels are sealed with butyl rubber because these elastomers are essentially impermeable for gases. We report on the potential toxicity of five different commercially available, lab-grade butyl stoppers on MOx activity in samples from marine and lacustrine environments. MOx rates in incubations sealed with non-halogenated butyl were 〉 50% lower compared to parallel incubations with halogenated butyl rubber stoppers, suggesting toxic effects associated with the use of the non-halogenated butyl type. Aqueous extracts of non-halogenated butyl rubber were contaminated with high amounts of various organic compounds including potential bactericides such as benzyltoluenes and phenylalkanes. Comparably small amounts of organic contaminants were liberated from the halogenated butyl rubber stoppers but only two halogenated stopper types were found that did not seem to leach any organics into the incubation medium. Furthermore, the non-halogenated and two types of the halogenated butyl elastomers additionally leached comparably high amounts of zinc. While the source of the apparent toxicity with the use of the non-halogenated rubber stoppers remains elusive, our results indicate that leaching of contaminants from some butyl rubber stoppers can severely interfere with the activity of MOx communities, highlighting the importance of testing rubber stoppers for their respective contamination potential. The impact of leachates from butyl rubber on the assessment of biogeochemical reaction rates other than MOx seems likely but needs to be verified.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-11-10
    Description: The Lena River is one of the largest Russian rivers draining into the Laptev Sea. The predicted increases in global temperatures are expected to cause the permafrost areas surrounding the Lena Delta to melt at increasing rates. This melting will result in high amounts of methane reaching the waters of the Lena and the adjacent Laptev Sea. The only biological sink that can lower methane concentrations within this system is methane oxidation by methanotrophic bacteria. However, the polar estuary of the Lena River, due to its strong fluctuations in salinity and temperature, is a challenging environment for bacteria. We determined the activity and abundance of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria by a tracer method and by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We described the methanotrophic population with a molecular fingerprinting method (monooxygenase intergenic spacer analysis), as well as the methane distribution (via a headspace method) and other abiotic parameters, in the Lena Delta in September 2013. The median methane concentrations were 22 nmol L−1 for riverine water (salinity (S)  〈 5), 19 nmol L−1 for mixed water (5 〈 S 〈 20) and 28 nmol L−1 for polar water (S 〉 20). The Lena River was not the source of methane in surface water, and the methane concentrations of the bottom water were mainly influenced by the methane concentration in surface sediments. However, the bacterial populations of the riverine and polar waters showed similar methane oxidation rates (0.419 and 0.400 nmol L−1 d−1), despite a higher relative abundance of methanotrophs and a higher estimated diversity in the riverine water than in the polar water. The methane turnover times ranged from 167 days in mixed water and 91 days in riverine water to only 36 days in polar water. The environmental parameters influencing the methane oxidation rate and the methanotrophic population also differed between the water masses. We postulate the presence of a riverine methanotrophic population that is limited by sub-optimal temperatures and substrate concentrations and a polar methanotrophic population that is well adapted to the cold and methane-poor polar environment but limited by a lack of nitrogen. The diffusive methane flux into the atmosphere ranged from 4 to 163 µmol m2 d−1 (median 24). The diffusive methane flux accounted for a loss of 8 % of the total methane inventory of the investigated area, whereas the methanotrophic bacteria consumed only 1 % of this methane inventory. Our results underscore the importance of measuring the methane oxidation activities in polar estuaries, and they indicate a population-level differentiation between riverine and polar water methanotrophs.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
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    COPERNICUS GESELLSCHAFT MBH
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: The Lena River is one of the largest Russian rivers draining into the Laptev Sea. The permafrost areas surrounding the Lena are predicted to thaw at increasing rates due to global temperature increases. With this thawing, large amounts of carbon—either organic or in the gaseous forms, carbon dioxide and methane—will reach the waters of the Lena and the adjacent Buor Khaya Bay (Laptev Sea). Methane concentrations and the isotopic signal of methane in the waters of the Lena Delta and estuary were monitored from 2008 to 2010. Creeks draining from permafrost soils produced hotspots for methane input into the river system (median concentration 1500 nM) compared with concentrations of 30 – 85 nM observed in the main channels of the Lena. No microbial methane oxidation could be detected, thus diffusion is the main process of methane removal. We estimated that the riverine diffusive methane flux is 3 – 10 times higher than the flux from surrounding terrestric environment. To maintain the observed methane concentrations in the river, additional methane sources are necessary. The methane rich creeks could be responsible for this input. In the estuary of Buor Khaya Bay, methane concentrations decreased to 26 – 33 nM. However, within the bay no consistent temporal and spatial pattern could be observed. The methane rich waters of the river were not diluted with marine water, because of a strong stratification of the water column. Thus, methane is released from the estuary and from the river mainly by diffusion into the atmosphere
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
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