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  • ddc:330  (25)
  • Competition
  • Entwicklungsländer
  • Heidelberg: Springer  (14)
  • Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)  (6)
  • Göttingen: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Research Training Group (RTG) 1666 - GlobalFood
  • Göttingen: Ibero-Amerika-Inst. für Wirtschaftsforschung
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-07
    Description: This paper explores the long-run effects of inflation on the dynamics of private sector bank credit and economic growth in Mexico over the period 1969 - 2011. With an ARDL-type model, the statistical results suggest that the availability of private sector bank credit in the economy exerts a positive impact on real GDP. In addition, inflation rates have contributed negatively to the increase in private credit, liquid liabilities, and financial development. A key outcome is that one percent increase in inflation is associated with a 0.07 % fall in long-run real rate of output through its effect on bank credit to the private sector. Another crucial finding is that policies of financial liberalization have helped stimulate economic growth. Reinforcing the literature on finance and growth, this study reaffirms that inflation rates are detrimental to long-run financial development and economic growth.
    Keywords: E31 ; G21 ; E44 ; O4 ; C22 ; ddc:330 ; Inflation ; Private sector bank credit ; Financial development ; Growth
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-11-27
    Description: This paper discusses the transportation challenges that urban areas in Latin America and the Caribbean face and reviews the causal evidence on the impact brought by different urban transport system interventions implemented around the world. The objective is to highlight the main lessons learned and identify knowledge gaps to guide the design and evaluation of future transport investments. The review shows that causal studies have been concentrated in certain areas and that an important number have been carried out in developed countries. Empirical challenges due to the non-random placement of these interventions and their possible effects over the entire transport network might explain the reduced amount of causal evaluations. A large part of the literature has focused on the impact of transport systems on housing values, finding overall increases in prices and rents, but with results highly dependent on the quality and perceived permanency of the system. There are few studies that explore socioeconomic effects, and those available have emphasized employment access. There are almost no studies exploring displacement effects, which should be examined to better understand the social inclusion role of transport systems. New avenues of research are emerging that exploit non-traditional sources of data, such as big data. Moreover, studies looking at ways to improve the operational efficiency of systems and those seeking to promote behavioral changes in transport users.
    Keywords: O18 ; R15 ; R42 ; ddc:330 ; urban transport systems ; Latin America and the Caribbean ; impact evaluation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-12-07
    Description: Background: Opioid addiction is a worldwide problem. Agonist opioid treatment (AOT) is the most widespread and frequent pharmacotherapeutic approach. Methadone has been the most widely used AOT, but buprenorphine, a partial kappa-opiod agonist and a my-opiod antagonist, is fast gaining acceptance. The objective was to assess the budgetary impact in Spain of the introduction of buprenorphine-naloxone (B/N) combination. Methods: A budgetary impact model was developed to estimate healthcare costs of the addition of B/N combination to the therapeutic arsenal for treating opioid dependent patients, during a 3-year period under the National Health System perspective. Inputs for the model were obtained from the specialized scientific literature. Detailed information concerning resource consumption (drug cost, logistics, dispensing, medical, psychiatry and pharmacy supervision, counselling and laboratory test) was obtained from a local expert panel. Costs are expressed in euros (€, 2010). Results: The number of patients estimated to be prescribed B/N combination was 2,334; 2,993 and 3,589 in the first, second and third year respectively. Total budget is €85,766,129; €79,855,471 and €79,137,502 in the first, second and third year for the scenario without B/N combination. With B/N combination the total budget would be €86,589,210; €80,398,259 and €79,708,964 in the first, second and third year of the analyses. Incremental cost/ patient comparing the addition of the B/N combination to the scenario only with methadone is €10.58; €6.98 and €7.34 in the first, second and third year respectively. Conclusion: Addition of B/N combination would imply a maximum incremental yearly cost of €10.58 per patient compared to scenario only with methadone and would provide additional benefits.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Buprenorphine-naloxone, Methadone, budgetary impact, opioid dependence, Spain
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-24
    Description: This paper investigates to what extent international migration can be explained by climatic variations. A gravity model of migration augmented with average temperature and precipitation in the country of origin is estimated using a panel data set of 142 sending countries for the period 1995 to 2006. We find two primary results. First, temperature is positively correlated with migration. Second, stronger changes in precipitation are also associated with aligned, but small changes in migration. Both effects are robust to various model modifications. Furthermore, we present initial explorations into the channels relating climate changes with migration via agriculture and internal conflict.
    Keywords: F22 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; International migration ; Climate change ; Gravity model ; Panel data
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-05-30
    Description: This paper offers estimates of the underreporting of income by selfemployed workers using the Spanish household surveys over the period 2006-2009. We replicate the well-known approach by Pissarides and Weber (J Public Econ 39(1):17-32, 1989) but extending its interpretation for admitting also the concealment of income by salary workers. Our results show that the reported income by self-employed has to be increased by about 25 % to obtain the level of income which would equal the level of underreporting by employees. Our estimates are robust to changes in specification, endogeneity and non-linearities.
    Keywords: D12 ; H26 ; O17 ; ddc:330 ; Underreporting ; Household surveys ; Food consumption ; Tax evasion
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-05-30
    Description: In this study, we consider the role of a publicly owned platform and programme quality in the free-to-air broadcasting industry. We compare the equilibrium levels of advertising under private and mixed duopoly competition, and show that the connection between programme quality and advertising incentives is drastically different in each scenario. We also consider the welfare implications of our analysis and generate policy implications regarding the optimal level of government intervention in the broadcasting industry.
    Keywords: L11 ; L33 ; L82 ; M37 ; ddc:330 ; Quality ; Mixed duopoly ; Advertising ; Media
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-05-30
    Description: In this paper, we provide empirical evidence for the impact of disciplinary sanctions imposed on Spanish auditing firms and their engagement partners. The disciplinary sanctions resulted from external investigations, which revealed misapplications of auditing standards. In particular, we evaluate (a) the efficacy of the external supervisory board in identifying low-quality auditors and (b) the effectiveness of the disciplinary system in improving the quality of subsequent statutory audits performed by the sanctioned auditors.We employ two earnings management indicators as proxies for audit quality: loss avoidance through extraordinary items and abnormal accruals. And we compare these measures in the financial statements of client companies (auditees) audited by sanctioned and non-sanctioned auditors between 1995 and 2007. Our evidence is mixed. The results show that companies audited by Non-Big 4 sanctioned auditors in the pre-inspection period are less likely to avoid bottom-line losses. Additionally, we conclude that use of this earnings management tool decreases in the post-investigation period for all sanctioned auditors, whether Big 4 or Non-Big 4 firms. Contrary to our expectations, the enhancement performance on this measure of audit quality is observed only for smaller fines. The discretionary accrual approach to earnings management does not offer significant results, however. Therefore, the conclusions are not robust, and further investigation is needed. A feasible explanation for the elusive conclusion may be based on the strong incentives for private firms to avoid bottom-line losses for financing purposes and to manipulate earnings to minimize tax payments.
    Keywords: M42 ; M48 ; ddc:330 ; Auditing ; Quality assurance ; Audit quality ; Oversight ; Disciplinary systems ; Inspections ; Investigations ; Sanctions ; Earnings management ; Discretionary accruals
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-03-01
    Description: Despite the growing interest in and proliferation of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems around the world, their causal impacts on labor market outcomes remain unexplored. Reduced travel times for those who live near BRT stations or near feeder lines, may increase access to a wider array of job opportunities, potentially leading to increased rates of employment, access to higher quality (or formal) jobs, and increased labor hours and earnings. This paper assesses the effects of the Metropolitano, the BRT system in Lima (Peru), on individual-level job market outcomes. We rely on a difference-in-differences empirical strategy, based on comparing individuals who live close to the BRT system with a comparison group that lives farther from the system, before and after the system started to operate. We find large impacts on employment, hours worked and labor earnings for those individuals close to the BRT stations, but not for those who live close to the feeder lines. Despite the potential to connect poor populations, we find no evidence of impacts for populations living in lower income areas.
    Keywords: J01 ; J21 ; O12 ; R40 ; ddc:330 ; Bus Rapid Transit ; employment ; impact evaluation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-03-01
    Description: Limited access to safe transportation is one of the greatest challenges to labor force participation faced by women in developing countries. This paper quantifies the causal impacts of improved urban transport systems in women´s employment outcomes, looking at Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and elevated light rail investments in the metropolitan region of Lima, Perú. We find large gains in employment and earnings per hour among women, and not for men, due to these investments. Most of the gains arise on the extensive margin, with more women being employed, but employment does not appear to be of higher quality than that for comparison groups. We find also evidence of an increase in the use of public transport. Results are robust to alternative specifications and we do not find evidence that they are driven by neighborhood composition changes. Overall, these findings suggest that infrastructure investments that make it more convenient and safer for women to use public transport can generate important labor market impacts for women who reside in the area of influence of the improved infrastructure.
    Keywords: J01 ; J16 ; O12 ; R40 ; ddc:330 ; urban transport ; gender ; employment ; impact evaluation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-04-10
    Description: This paper evaluates the impact of the structural and cohesion funds received by Spain in the period 2007-2013. The analysis is performed with a detailed computable general equilibrium (CGE) model calibrated with a SAM for Spain in 2005 elaborated by the authors, which contains highly detailed information on capital goods and tax rates. The aim of this paper is to quantify the short-run effects of the EU funds in the Spanish economy, which can help economic recovery. Additionally, it is evaluated to what extent these short-run effects may be over- or underestimated due to the closure rule used in this kind of models (neoclassical or Keynesian). The closure determines the endogenous variables in the market clearance conditions, and they affect the results of shocks in final demand. The conclusions show that neoclassical closure, used in previous CGE studies done for Spain, underestimates the impact they have on employment and GDP and captures a fictitious shock in private investment. In this case, employment and real GDP do not almost change, while under Keynesian rule they increase in 1.2 and 0.68%, respectively. These results invalidate some of the estimates derived from previous studies and suggest that the best option to quantify the likely positive short-run effects of raising public investment is only captured through Keynesian closure.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Structural funds ; Computable general equilibrium model ; Investment goods ; Closure rules
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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