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  • Blackwell Science Ltd  (3)
  • Springer Nature  (1)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The three dimensional distribution of intercepted radiation, intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and late summer needle nitrogen (N) concentration were determined at the tips of all 54 branches in a 6·2-m-tall Pinus radiata D. Don tree growing in a New Zealand plantation. Measurements included above- and below-canopy irradiance, leaf stable carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) and tree canopy architecture. The radiation absorption component of the model, MAESTRO, was tested on site and then used to determine the branch tip distribution of intercepted radiation. We hypothesized that in branch tip needles: (i) the allocation of nitrogen and other nutrients would be closely associated with the distribution of intercepted radiation, reflecting carbon gain optimization theory, and (ii) Ci would predominantly reflect changes in photosynthetic rate (A) rather than stomatal conductance (gs), indicating that the increase in A for a given increase in N concentration was larger than the corresponding increase in gs. Needle nitrogen concentration was poorly related to intercepted radiation, regardless of the period over which the latter was calculated. At a given height, there was a large azimuthal variation in intercepted radiation but N concentration was remarkably uniform around the tree canopy. There was, however, a linear and positive correspondence between N concentration and δ13C and needle height above ground (r2 = 0·73 and 0·68, respectively). The very strong linear correspondence between N concentration and Ci (r2 = 0·71) was interpreted, using gas exchange measurements, as supporting our second hypothesis. Recognizing the strong apical control in P. radiata and possible effects of leaf nitrogen storage in an evergreen species, we propose that the tree leader must have constituted a very strong carbon sink throughout the growing season, and that the proximity of branch tip needles to the leader affected their photosynthetic capacity and nutrient concentration, independent of intercepted radiation. This implies an integrated internal determination of resource allocation within the tree and challenges the current convention that resources are optimally distributed according to the profile of intercepted radiation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: Based on review and original data, this synthesis investigates carbon pools and fluxes of Siberian and European forests (600 and 300 million ha, respectively). We examine the productivity of ecosystems, expressed as positive rate when the amount of carbon in the ecosystem increases, while (following micrometeorological convention) downward fluxes from the atmosphere to the vegetation (NEE = Net Ecosystem Exchange) are expressed as negative numbers. Productivity parameters are Net Primary Productivity (NPP=whole plant growth), Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP = CO2 assimilation minus ecosystem respiration), and Net Biome Productivity (NBP = NEP minus carbon losses through disturbances bypassing respiration, e.g. by fire and logging). Based on chronosequence studies and national forestry statistics we estimate a low average NPP for boreal forests in Siberia: 123 gC m–2 y–1. This contrasts with a similar calculation for Europe which suggests a much higher average NPP of 460 gC m–2 y–1 for the forests there. Despite a smaller area, European forests have a higher total NPP than Siberia (1.2–1.6 vs. 0.6–0.9 × 1015 gC region–1 y–1). This arises as a consequence of differences in growing season length, climate and nutrition. For a chronosequence of Pinus sylvestris stands studied in central Siberia during summer, NEE was most negative in a 67-y old stand regenerating after fire (– 192 mmol m–2 d–1) which is close to NEE in a cultivated forest of Germany (– 210 mmol m–2 d–1). Considerable net ecosystem CO2-uptake was also measured in Siberia in 200- and 215-y old stands (NEE:174 and – 63 mmol m–2 d–1) while NEP of 7- and 13-y old logging areas were close to the ecosystem compensation point. Two Siberian bogs and a bog in European Russia were also significant carbon sinks (– 102 to – 104 mmol m–2 d–1). Integrated over a growing season (June to September) we measured a total growing season NEE of – 14 mol m–2 summer–1 (– 168 gC m–2 summer–1) in a 200-y Siberian pine stand and – 5 mol m–2 summer–1 (– 60 gC m–2 summer–1) in Siberian and European Russian bogs. By contrast, over the same period, a spruce forest in European Russia was a carbon source to the atmosphere of (NEE: + 7 mol m–2 summer–1 = + 84 gC m–2 summer–1). Two years after a windthrow in European Russia, with all trees being uplifted and few successional species, lost 16 mol C m–2 to the atmosphere over a 3-month in summer, compared to the cumulative NEE over a growing season in a German forest of – 15.5 mol m–2 summer–1 (– 186 gC m–2 summer–1; European flux network annual averaged – 205 gC m–2 y–1). Differences in CO2-exchange rates coincided with differences in the Bowen ratio, with logging areas partitioning most incoming radiation into sensible heat whereas bogs partitioned most into evaporation (latent heat). Effects of these different surface energy exchanges on local climate (convective storms and fires) and comparisons with the Canadian BOREAS experiment are discussed. Following a classification of disturbances and their effects on ecosystem carbon balances, fire and logging are discussed as the main processes causing carbon losses that bypass heterotrophic respiration in Siberia. Following two approaches, NBP was estimated to be only about 13–16 mmol m–2 y–1 for Siberia. It may reach 67 mmol m–2 y–1 in North America, and about 140–400 mmol m–2 y–1 in Scandinavia. We conclude that fire speeds up the carbon cycle, but that it results also in long-term carbon sequestration by charcoal formation. For at least 14 years after logging, regrowth forests remain net sources of CO2 to the atmosphere. This has important implications regarding the effects of Siberian forest management on atmospheric concentrations. For many years after logging has taken place, regrowth forests remain weaker sinks for atmospheric CO2 than are nearby old-growth forests.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: We used a combination of eddy flux, chamber and environmental measurements with an integrated suite of models to analyse the seasonality of net ecosystem carbon uptake (FCO2) in an 8-year-old, closed canopy Pinus radiata D.Don plantation in New Zealand (42°52′ S, 172°45′ E). The analyses utilized a biochemically based, big-leaf model of tree canopy photosynthesis (Ac), coupled to multiplicative environmental-constraint functions of canopy stomatal conductance (Gc) via environmental measurements, a temperature-dependent model of ecosystem respiration (Reco), and a soil water balance model. Available root zone water storage capacity at the measurement site is limited to about 50 mm for the very stony soil, and annual precipitation is only 660 mm, distributed evenly throughout the year. Accordingly the site is prone to soil moisture deficit throughout the summer. G c and Ac obtained maximum rates early in the growing season when plentiful soil water supply was associated with sufficient quantum irradiance (Qabs), and moderate air saturation deficit (D) and temperature (T). From late spring onwards, soil water deficit and D confined Gc and Ac congruously, which together with the solely temperature dependency of Reco resulted in the pronounced seasonality in FCO2. Reflecting a light-limitation of Ac in the closed canopy, modelled annual carbon (C) uptake was most sensitive to changes in Qabs. However, Qabs did not vary significantly between years, and changes in annual FCO2 were mostly due to variability in summer rainfall and D. Annual C-uptake of the forest was 717 g C m–2 in a near-average rainfall year, exceeding by one third the net uptake in a year with 20% less than average rainfall (515 g C m–2).
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1994-09-01
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Published by Springer Nature
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