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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: While much is known about the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites by filamentous fungi their biological role is often less clear. The assumption is these pathways have adaptive value to the organism but often the evidence to support this role is lacking. We provide the first genetic evidence that the fungal produced secondary metabolite, peramine, protects a host plant from insect herbivory. Peramine is a potent insect feeding deterrent synthesized by Epichloë/Neotyphodium mutualistic endophytes in association with their grass hosts. The structure of peramine, a pyrrolopyrazine, suggests that it is the product of a reaction catalysed by a two-module non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS). Candidate sequences for a peramine synthetase were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Four unique NRPS products were identified, two of which were preferentially expressed in planta. One of these hybridized to known peramine producing strains. This clone was used to isolate an Epichloë festucae cosmid that contained a two-module NRPS, designated perA. Nine additional genes, which show striking conservation of microsynteny with Fusarium graminearum and other fungal genomes, were identified on the perA-containing cosmid. Associations between perennial ryegrass and an E. festucae mutant deleted for perA lack detectable levels of peramine. A wild-type copy of perA complemented the deletion mutant, confirming that perA is a NRPS required for peramine biosynthesis. In a choice bioassay, plant material containing the perA mutant was as susceptible to Argentine stem weevil (ASW) (Listronotus bonariensis) feeding damage as endophyte-free plants confirming that peramine is the E. festucae metabolite responsible for ASW feeding deterrent activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Some strains of the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes express a surface protein called protein H, which is released from the streptococcal surface by a cysteine proteinase produced by the bacteria. Here, we find that soluble protein H binds to the surface of lymphocytes and granulocytes, and that the molecule is taken up by lymphocytes and transported to the perinuclear region. The translocation over the cell membrane is rapid, and the uptake and intracellular transportation is not dependent on actin polymerization. Protein H could be immunoprecipitated from cell extracts and nuclear preparations of lymphocytes, and analysis of molecular interactions between pro-tein H and proteins of different cellular compart-ments demonstrated a binding to nucleophosmin/ B23, a protein known to shuttle between the cytoplasm and the nucleus, and to the nuclear proteins SET and hnRNP A2/B1. Nucleophosmin/B23 was co-immunoprecipitated with protein H from cell and nuclear extracts, and binding experiments, including kinetic analyses, suggest that protein H dissociating from nucleophosmin/B23 complexes in the perinuclear region or in the nucleus binds to proteins SET and hnRNP A2/B1. Finally, the uptake and intracellular transportation of protein H was found to result in a cytostatic effect on B and T lymphocytes.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 10 (1981), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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