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  • Wiley-Blackwell  (2)
  • Blackwell Publishing Ltd.  (1)
  • Canadian Society of Petroleum Geologists (CSPG)  (1)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-10-19
    Description: Using the data from over 8000 wells augmented by seismic and thermal response information, a comparison of McMurray Formation (Cretaceous) and Grosmont C member (Devonian) thermal recovery reservoirs of northeastern Alberta is provided along with a discussion of reservoir performance to date. Fluvial-estuarine McMurray Formation reservoirs perform best where bitumen-charged homogeneous lenticular sandstones at least 20 metres thick are found. These deposits are relatively rare as the formation is characterized by endemic heterogeneity mainly in the form of inclined heterolithic stratification (IHS). Most of the best McMurray steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) reservoirs appear to be currently on-line and produce approximately 113 000 m 3 /day of bitumen from fourteen projects. Platform carbonate Grosmont C successions are blanket deposits 32–35 metres thick, with bitumen columns typically 15–24 metres thick, and are characterized by consistent reservoir properties facilitated by pervasive multi-scale fracturing. Although no reserves have yet to be assigned to Alberta’s bitumen-bearing carbonates by the province, recent pilot results derived from cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) operations suggest that Grosmont C reservoir performance could ultimately prove to be competitive with superior McMurray SAGD reservoirs. Under current technological and economic conditions, McMurray SAGD reservoirs appear incapable of providing the 15.9 billion m 3 of in-situ bitumen reserves (59% of Canada’s total oil reserves) ascribed to this formation by the province of Alberta as only circa 6 billion m 3 of oil-in place appears to reside within optimal reservoirs (i.e. those reservoirs at least 20 metres thick with average porosity and oil saturation values of 33% and 80%, respectively). Barring future technological breakthroughs and, or, economic improvements, future commercial development of both the Grosmont C and other carbonate reservoirs might be needed to make up for some of the potential reserve shortfall associated with McMurray Formation SAGD reservoirs.
    Print ISSN: 0007-4802
    Electronic ISSN: 0007-4802
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Pyridoxylated adult human hemoglobin (HbAo) was prepared using a one molar equivalent of pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP) per heme and reduced with either NaCNBH3 or NaBH4. A separate sample was pyridoxylated and passed through a mixed-bed ion exchange column without reduction. All three preparations had a P50 of 29 ± 2 torr and a cooperativity of n = 2.4 ± 0.1. These preparations, in both the oxy and deoxy forms, were then treated with 7 equivalents of glutaraldehyde per tetramer at pH 6.8 at 4°C and at room temperature. The polymerization invariably reduced the P50 to 18 ± 2 torr with Hill coefficients of less than 2. These solutions, with or without further reduction using NaCNBH3, all retained the PLP in differing amounts (2-3 moles/tetramer). Methemoglobin concentrations were increased during the polymerization reaction. The normal pyridoxylation procedure, using sodium borohydride reduction, resulted in a number of different molecular species. Polymerization with glutaraldehyde caused a further proliferation of molecular species that could not be separated by anion exchange chromatography or by isoelectric focusing. The extent of polymerization, estimated by gel exclusion chromatography and SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was from 40 to 50%. Analysis of the reverse phase chromatograms, which separate the heme and the α- and β-chains, showed extensive polymerization and distribution of the radioactively labeled PLP on the protein for all preparations. All of the polymerized and pyridoxylated samples were unstable, and showed different chromatographic patterns after storage at 4°C for 1 month. Attempts to stabilize these preparations by further reduction with NaCNBH3 gave products with a lower P50 and lower cooperativity. When the reactions were conducted with a purified HbAo, heterogeneity was somewhat decreased compared to the normally used stroma-free hemoglobin, but a large number of molecular species were still formed.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A number of chemically modified hemoglobin preparations have been proposed for use as an emergency resuscitation fluid. The purpose for forming these hemoglobin derivatives is to decrease the oxygen binding (i.e., to increase the P50) and to increase the intravascular retention time. These goals have been met with various degrees of success by using the reaction with pyridoxyl 5-phosphate to raise the P50, followed by the addition of glutaraldehyde to increase circulating half-life by polymerization.1,2 Other derivatives have been formed with polyethylene glycol,3,4 bis-(3,5-dibromosalicyl) fumarate,5,6 glycolaldehyde,7 and 2-nor-2-formylpyridoxal 5-phosphate,8,9 as well as with other compounds. All these derivatives introduce a foreign molecule into the hemoglobin, which may not always be desirable. Recently Tharp and Day10 used cyanogen to form intersubunit amide cross-links in hemoglobin without the incorporation of cyanogen. This approach is attractive if the appropriate functional properties can be attained. Takeda et al.11 showed that equimolar concentrations of amino acids and disuccinimidyloxalate could form peptide bonds in high yield. We report the characteristics of the hemoglobin molecule modified by internal covalent amide bonds, which may be a suitable candidate for a resuscitation fluid.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
    Weed research 42 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The spatial cross-correlation between weed species densities and six soil properties within fields was analysed using cross-semivariograms. The survey was carried out in three successive years in two fields. The most consistent relationship between weed species density (numbers m−2) and soil properties was negative cross-correlation between the density of Viola arvensis Murray and clay content. This correlation was found in both fields; however, the range of spatial dependence varied between fields. In one of the fields, the density of Lamium purpureum L. was positively cross-correlated with the phosphorus content in the soil in all years. The density of Veronica spp. and Poa annua L. was negatively cross-correlated with pH in all three years. Other spatial cross-correlations that were found in this study were inconsistent over time or field site. The densities of some of the weed species were spatially cross-correlated with more than one soil property. The results showed that the range of spatial dependence varied not only between fields, but also between weed species and soil properties, as well as between years. This study indicates that the weed pattern is field-specific and that the spatial variation in soil properties within a field is one of several factors affecting weed patchiness.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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