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  • 1
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1574-6941
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract: The possibilities of mobilizing recombinant DNA (rDNA) by strains from activated sludge have been studied. A mixture of ten bacterial strains isolated from activated sludge was grown on a support in a continuously fed fixed-bed reactor or in suspension in a sequenced-batch reactor with biomass recycling. After reaching steady state, the bacteria in both types of reactors were used as the recipient population for evaluating the dissemination of the non-conjugative and non-mobilizable recombinant plasmid pCE328. The dissemination of this plasmid, derived from pBR328 (tra−, mob−, oriT−), was studied in comparison with that of pCE325 (pBR325 derivative tra−, mob−, oriT+), and that of the natural broad host range conjugative plasmid R388 (IncW). Initially the mobilization properties of pBR type recombinant plasmids between two strains of Escherichia coli were determined in the fixed-bed reactor. Only the mobilization of the recombinant plasmid bearing a transfer origin (pCE325) was observed. The survival of E. coli strains bearing either the non-transferable plasmid pCE328 or the conjugative plasmid R388 and added to the activated sludge reactors was measured in the effluent of both types of reactors. In the fixed-bed reactor effluent, the donor populations remained stable after three days of operation and reached 103 to 105 colony forming units (cfu) ml−1, whereas they decreased in the sequenced-batch reactors: donors bearing the pCE328 plasmid decreased by 2 log units in 20 days, whereas those bearing the R388 plasmid decreased by less than 1 log unit. Mobilization of the pCE328 plasmid could not be detected in any case. Transfer of the conjugative plasmid R388, used as a positive propagation control, was detected in strains arising from activated sludge in both types of reactors. Nevertheless, establishment of transconjugants was observed only in the fixed biomass at the rate of 10−7 transconjugants per recipient.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1574-695X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Western-blot analysis was used to study the reaction of koala antisera, two specific polyclonal antibodies and one monoclonal antibody, with chlamydial antigens in koalas infected with Chlamydia psittaci. The koala sera recognized four C. psittaci surface antigens, corresponding to the major outer membrane protein (39.5 kDa), 31 kDa protein, 18 kDa protein and lipopolysaccharide. The S25-23 LPS specific monoclonal antibody inhibited chlamydial infection (55–67%) with both koala strains (type I and type II). Both koala antiserum and rabbit polyclonal antibodies against either type of chlamydia significantly reduced the number of infected cells resulting from type II infections at a dilution of 1 in 20. Rabbit antiserum against type II was effective in neutralizing infection by type II elementary bodies, but was less effective against type I infection. In addition, no koala antiserum was effective in neutralizing type I infection.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Risk analysis 9 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1539-6924
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Risk communication is seen as an important adjunct to the process of siting locally noxious facilities. To understand how risk communication might function in such a process, one needs to understand the political context that gives rise to public opposition to such facilities in the first place. This analysis draws on a variety of data to describe the decline of deference, a situation in which a hostile and alienated public is mobilized primarily through ad hoc voluntary organizations, and is increasingly reluctant to defer important decisions to institutional elites. Risk communication programs must be designed to offset the trends that result in the decline of deference. This conclusion differs markedly from the conventional wisdom that risk communication is merely a device for providing information to citizens so sthat they may make more rational decisions.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2012-07-01
    Description: Manganoquadratite, ideally AgMnAsS3, is a new mineral from the Uchucchacua polymetallic deposit, Oyon district, Catajambo, Lima Department, Peru. It occurs as dark gray, anhedral to subhedral grains up 0.5 mm across, closely associated with alabandite, Mn-rich calcite, Mn-rich sphalerite, proustite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, tennantite, argentotennantite, stannite, and other unnamed minerals of the system Pb-Ag-Sb-Mn-As-S. Manganoquadratite is opaque with a metallic luster and possesses a reddish-brown streak. It is brittle, the Vickers microhardness (VHN10) is 81 kg/mm2 (range 75–96) (corresponding Mohs hardness of 2–2½). The calculated density is 4.680 g/cm3 (on the basis of the empirical formula). In plane-polarized reflected light, manganoquadratite is moderately bireflectant and very weakly pleochroic from dark gray to a blue gray. Internal reflections are absent. Between crossed polars, the mineral is anisotropic, without characteristic rotation tints. Reflectance percentages (Rmin and Rmax) for the four standard COM wavelengths are 29.5, 31.8 (471.1 nm), 28.1, 30.5 (548.3 nm), 27.3, 29.3 (586.6 nm), and 26.0, 28.2 (652.3 nm), respectively.Manganoquadratite is tetragonal, space group P4322, with unit-cell parameters: a = 5.4496(5), c = 32.949(1) Å, V = 978.5(1) Å3, c:a = 6.046, Z = 8. The structure, refined to R1 = 0.0863 for 907 reflections with Fo 〉 4σ(Fo), consists of a stacking along [001] of alabandite-like Mn2S2 layers connected to each to other by a couple of AgAsS2 sheets where As3+ forms typical AsS3 groups, whereas Ag+ cations are fivefold coordinated. The six strongest lines in the observed X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in Å (I/I0) (hkl)] are: 3.14 (60) (116), 2.739 (50) (0 0 12), 2.710 (100) (200), 1.927(70) (2 0 12 + 220), 1.645 (25) (3 0 16), and 1.573 (20) (22 12).Electron microprobe analyses gave the chemical formula (on the basis of six atoms) (Ag0.95Cu0.05)∑=1.00 (Mn0.96Pb0.04)∑=1.00(As0.87Sb0.14)∑=1.01S2.99, leading to the simplified formula AgMnAsS3.The name was chosen to indicate the close analogy of the formula and unit-cell dimensions with quadratite, Ag(Cd,Pb)(As,Sb)S3. The new mineral and mineral name have been approved by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification, IMA 2011-008.
    Print ISSN: 0003-004X
    Electronic ISSN: 1945-3027
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-02-01
    Description: Menchettiite, ideally AgPb2.40Mn1.60Sb3As2S12, is a new mineral from the Uchucchacua polymetallic deposit, Oyon district, Catajambo, Lima Department, Peru. It occurs as black, anhedral to subhedral grains up to 200 µm across, closely associated with orpiment, tennantite/tetrahedrite, other unnamed minerals of the system Pb-Ag-Sb-Mn-As-S, and calcite. Menchettiite is opaque with a metallic luster and possesses a black streak. It is brittle, with uneven fracture; the Vickers microhardness (VHN100) is 128 kg/mm2 (range 119–136) (corresponding to a Mohs hardness of 2½–3). The calculated density is 5.146 g/cm3 (on the basis of the empirical formula). In plane-polarized incident light, menchettiite is weakly to moderately bireflectant and weakly pleochroic from dark gray to a dark green. Internal reflections are absent. Between crossed polarizers, the mineral is anisotropic, without characteristic rotation tints. Reflectance percentages (Rmin and Rmax) for the four standard COM wavelengths are 33.1, 39.8 (471.1 nm), 31.8, 38.0 (548.3 nm), 30.9, 37.3 (586.6 nm), and 29.0, 35.8 (652.3 nm), respectively.Menchettiite is monoclinic, space group P21/n, with unit-cell parameters: a = 19.233(2), b = 12.633(3), c = 8.476(2) Å, ß = 90.08(2)°, V = 2059.4(8) Å3, a: b: c 1.522:1:0.671, Z = 2, and it is twinned on {100}. The crystal structure was refined to R = 0.0903 for 2365 reflections with Fo 〉 4s(Fo) and it resulted to be topologically identical to those of ramdohrite, uchucchacuaite, and fizélyite. The six strongest X-ray powder-diffraction lines [d in Å (I/I0) (hkl)] are: 3.4066 (39) (3¯12), 3.4025 (39) (312), 3.2853 (100) (520), 2.8535 (50) (2¯32), 2.8519 (47) (232), and 2.1190 (33) (004). Electron-microprobe analyses gave the chemical formula Ag1.95Cu0.01Pb4.81Mn3.20Fe0.02Zn0.01Sb6.09As3.94Bi0.01S23.95Se0.01, on the basis of 44 atoms and according to the structure refinement results. Menchettiite can be classified among the Sb-rich members of the lillianite homeotypic series, which are described with the general formula AgxPb3-2xSb2+xS6. Besides the heterovalent substitution 2Pb2+ ? Ag+ + Sb3+ taken into consideration by the above formula, two isovalent substitutions relate menchettiite to the other lillianite homeotypes, i.e., Mn2+ ? Pb2+ and As3+ ? Sb3+. The name is after Silvio Menchetti (1937–), Professor of Mineralogy and Crystallography at the University of Florence. The new mineral and mineral name have been approved by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification, IMA (2011–009).
    Print ISSN: 0003-004X
    Electronic ISSN: 1945-3027
    Topics: Geosciences
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